Insulin resistance in human adipocytes occurs downstream of IRS1 after surgical cell isolation but at the level of phosphorylation of IRS1 in type 2 diabetes.
ABSTRACT Insulin resistance is a cardinal feature of type 2 diabetes and also a consequence of trauma such as surgery. Directly after surgery and cell isolation, adipocytes were insulin resistant, but this was reversed after overnight incubation in 10% CO(2) at 37 degrees C. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1 was insulin sensitive, but protein kinase B (PKB) and downstream metabolic effects exhibited insulin resistance that was reversed by overnight incubation. MAP-kinases ERK1/2 and p38 were strongly phosphorylated after surgery, but was dephosphorylated during reversal of insulin resistance. Phosphorylation of MAP-kinase was not caused by collagenase treatment during cell isolation and was present also in tissue pieces that were not subjected to cell isolation procedures. The insulin resistance directly after surgery and cell isolation was different from insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes; adipocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes remained insulin resistant after overnight incubation. IRS1, PKB, and downstream metabolic effects, but not insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor, exhibited insulin resistance. These findings suggest a new approach in the study of surgery-induced insulin resistance and indicate that human adipocytes should recover after surgical procedures for analysis of insulin signalling. Moreover, we pinpoint the signalling dysregulation in type 2 diabetes to be the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS1 in human adipocytes.
Article: Phosphorylation of IRS1 at Serine 307 in Response to Insulin in Human Adipocytes Is Not Likely to be Catalyzed by p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is phosphorylated on serine 307 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine 302) in response to insulin as part of a feedback loop that controls IRS1 phosphorylation on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor. This in turn directly affects downstream signaling and is in human adipocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The phosphorylation is inhibited by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in complex with raptor (mTORC1). The mTORC1-downstream p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), which is activated by insulin, can phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in vitro and is considered the physiological protein kinase. Because the IRS1 serine 307-kinase catalyzes a critical step in the control of insulin signaling and constitutes a potential target for treatment of insulin resistance, it is important to know whether S6K1 is the physiological serine 307-kinase or not. We report that, by several criteria, S6K1 does not phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in response to insulin in intact human primary adipocytes: (i) The time-courses for phosphorylation of S6K1 and its phosphorylation of S6 are not compatible with the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (ii) A dominant-negative construct of S6K1 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (iii) The specific inhibitor of S6K1 PF-4708671 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307. mTOR-immunoprecipitates from insulin-stimulated adipocytes contains an unidentified protein kinase specific for phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307, but it is not mTOR or S6K1.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e59725. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Growth and Structure of ZnO Nanorods on a Sub-Micrometer Glass Pipette and Their Application as Intracellular Potentiometric Selective Ion Sensors[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the growth and structure of ZnO nanorods on a sub-micrometer glass pipette and their application as an intracellular selective ion sensor. Highly oriented, vertical and aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on the tip of a borosilicate glass capillary (0.7 µm in diameter) by the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique. The relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of ZnO nanorods makes them attractive for electrochemical sensing. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that ZnO nanorods are single crystals and grow along the crystal’s c-axis. The ZnO nanorods were functionalized with a polymeric membrane for selective intracellular measurements of Na+. The membrane-coated ZnO nanorods exhibited a Na+-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference micro-electrode within a wide concentration range from 0.5 mM to 100 mM. The fabrication of functionalized ZnO nanorods paves the way to sense a wide range of biochemical species at the intracellular level.Materials. 01/2010;
Article: A hierarchical whole-body modeling approach elucidates the link between in Vitro insulin signaling and in Vivo glucose homeostasis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disease that profoundly affects energy homeostasis. The disease involves failure at several levels and subsystems and is characterized by insulin resistance in target cells and tissues (i.e. by impaired intracellular insulin signaling). We have previously used an iterative experimental-theoretical approach to unravel the early insulin signaling events in primary human adipocytes. That study, like most insulin signaling studies, is based on in vitro experimental examination of cells, and the in vivo relevance of such studies for human beings has not been systematically examined. Herein, we develop a hierarchical model of the adipose tissue, which links intracellular insulin control of glucose transport in human primary adipocytes with whole-body glucose homeostasis. An iterative approach between experiments and minimal modeling allowed us to conclude that it is not possible to scale up the experimentally determined glucose uptake by the isolated adipocytes to match the glucose uptake profile of the adipose tissue in vivo. However, a model that additionally includes insulin effects on blood flow in the adipose tissue and GLUT4 translocation due to cell handling can explain all data, but neither of these additions is sufficient independently. We also extend the minimal model to include hierarchical dynamic links to more detailed models (both to our own models and to those by others), which act as submodules that can be turned on or off. The resulting multilevel hierarchical model can merge detailed results on different subsystems into a coherent understanding of whole-body glucose homeostasis. This hierarchical modeling can potentially create bridges between other experimental model systems and the in vivo human situation and offers a framework for systematic evaluation of the physiological relevance of in vitro obtained molecular/cellular experimental data.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(29):26028-41. · 4.77 Impact Factor