The early development of stereotypy and self-injury: A review of research methods

Department of Educational Psychology, College of Education and Human Development, 238 Burton Hall 178 Pillsbury Drive, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research (Impact Factor: 2.41). 03/2005; 49(Pt 2):144-58. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2004.00632.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The origin and developmental course of stereotypic and self-injurious behaviour among individuals with developmental disabilities such as intellectual disability (ID) or pervasive development disorders such as autism is not well understood.
Twelve studies designed to document the prevalence, nature, or development of stereotypic and/or self-injurious behaviour in children under 5 years of age and identified as at risk for developmental delay or disability were reviewed. Comparisons were made with similar studies with typically developing children.
It appears that the onset of naturally occurring rhythmic motor stereotypies is delayed in young at-risk children, but that the sequencing may be similar. A very small database, differences in samples, measures, and designs limited the degree to which comparisons could be made across studies.
Future work is needed based on appropriately designed prospective comparison studies and uniform quantitative measures to provide an empirical basis for new knowledge about the early development of one of the most serious behaviour disorders afflicting children with ID and related problems of development.

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    • "Emerging evidence has demonstrated that motor stereotypies occur not only in children with ASD, and other developmental disabilities but also in normally developing children and adolescents (Barry, Baird, Lascelles, Bunton, & Hedderly, 2011; Harris, Mahone, & Singer, 2008; Mahone, Bridges, Prahme, & Singer, 2004). The nature and developmental course of stereotypies among individuals with ASD is not well understood (Symons, Sperry, Dropik, & Bodfish, 2005). Moreover, observational research has revealed that motor stereotypies may be more prevalent during times of emotional or social demand (e.g., times of excitement or stress, situations with increased social engagement) and in times of boredom (Schlaggar & Mink, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports on the relationship between motor stereotypies and impairments in executive functions (EF) in children with Autistic Disorder (AD) and in children with Developmental Language Disorders (DLD). We hypothesized that low EF performance would predict higher frequency and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only. Twenty-two children (age range = 7-9 years, 6 months, girls = 5) with AD were recruited from a longitudinal multi-site study and compared to twenty-two non-autistic children with DLD (age range = 7-9 years, 6 months, girls = 5). The two groups were matched on non-verbal IQ and demographic characteristics. Frequency and duration of stereotypies were coded from videotaped semi-structured play sessions. EF measures included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) Categories, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) Mazes, and Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition (SB-IV) Matrices. The scores for frequency and duration of stereotypies were higher in the AD group. Separate linear regressions revealed that group status, EF, and their interactions predict stereotypies. Specifically, lower EF scores predicted higher frequencies and longer durations of stereotypies in the AD group only. Analyses controlled for age, gender, and parent education. Findings suggest that in AD, EF impairments and stereotypies may be linked to shared brain pathways.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 07/2012; 6(3):1099-1106. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2012.03.001 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    • "The three major phenotypic domains that characterize autism—language deficits, social deficits and stereotypies/ repetitive behaviours—can often be seen to varying degrees in individuals with ID. Individuals with ID often display stereotypies, which tend to become more pronounced and often self-injurious with decreasing IQ (Symons et al., 2005). Studies have found that 30-60% of individuals with ID display some form of stereotypy (Bodfish et al., 1995; Bodfish et al., 2000; Goldman et al., 2009). "
    Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Genetics in Diagnosis and Treatment, 08/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-495-5
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    • "The three major phenotypes that characterize autism—language abnormalities, social deficits and stereotypies—can often be seen to varying degrees in ID individuals. Individuals with ID often display stereotypies, which tend to become more pronounced and often selfinjurious , as IQ decreases (Symons et al. 2005). Studies have found that 30–60% of individuals with ID display some form of stereotypy (Bodfish et al. 1995; Bodfish et al. 2000; Goldman et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Intellectual disability (ID), also referred to as mental retardation (MR), is frequently the result of genetic mutation. Where ID is present together with additional clinical symptoms or physical anomalies, there is often sufficient information available for the diagnosing physician to identify a known syndrome, which may then educe the identification of the causative defect. However, where co-morbid features are absent, narrowing down a specific gene can only be done by 'brute force' using the latest molecular genetic techniques. Here we attempt to provide a systematic review of genetic causes of cases of ID where no other symptoms or co-morbid features are present, or non-syndromic ID. We attempt to summarize commonalities between the genes and the molecular pathways of their encoded proteins. Since ID is a common feature of autism, and conversely autistic features are frequently present in individuals with ID, we also look at possible overlaps in genetic etiology with non-syndromic ID.
    Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders 12/2010; 2(4):182-209. DOI:10.1007/s11689-010-9055-2 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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