Nucleotides and pronucleotides of 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)methylenecyclopropane analogues of purine nucleosides: synthesis and antiviral activity.
ABSTRACT Phenylmethylphosphor-L-alaninate pronucleotides 7a, 7b, 8a, and 8b, cyclic phosphates 10a and 10b, and phosphates 11a and 11b derived from 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)methylenecyclopropane analogues 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b were synthesized and evaluated for their antiviral activity. An improved protocol for the synthesis of analogues 1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b is also described. Phosphate 11a was the most effective agent against human and murine cytomegalovirus (EC(50) 0.25-1.1 microM). The Z-pronucleotides 7a and 7b had EC(50) 3.6-25.2 and 3-18.4 microM, respectively. The EC(50) of cyclic phosphate 10a was 6.0-20 microM. The activity against Epstein-Barr (EBV) was assay-dependent. Pronucleotides 7a and 7b and phosphate 11a had EC(50) 2.3-3.4 microM against EBV/H-1, but 7b was cytotoxic (CC(50) 3.8 microM). Cyclic phosphate 10a was the only compound effective against EBV/Daudi (EC(50) 0.96 microM), but it was inactive in H-1 cells. Pronucleotide 7a was active against varicella zoster virus with EC(50) 6.3 and 7.3 microM, respectively, and hepatitis B virus (HBV, EC(50) 4.1 microM). Cyclic phosphate 10a was the most effective analogue against HBV (EC(50) 0.8 microM).
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ABSTRACT: Methylenecyclopropane nucleosides have been reported to be active against many of the human herpesviruses. The most active compound of this class is cyclopropavir (CPV), which exhibits good antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), Epstein Barr virus, both variants of human herpesvirus 6, and human herpesvirus 8. CPV has two hydroxylmethyl groups on the methylenecyclopropane ring, but analogs with a single hydroxymethyl group, such as the prototypical (S)-synguanol, are also active and exhibit a broader spectrum of antiviral activity that also includes hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Here, a large set of mono-hydroxymethyl compounds with ether and thioether substituents at the 6-position of the purine was synthesized and evaluated for antiviral activity against a range of human herpesviruses. Some of these analogs had a broader spectrum of antiviral activity than CPV in that they also inhibited the replication of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) type 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of these compounds appeared to be dependent on the activity of the HCMV UL97 kinase, but was relatively unaffected by the absence of thymidine kinase activity in HSV. These data taken together indicate that the mechanism of action of these analogs is distinct from that of CPV. They also suggest that they might be useful as a broad spectrum antiherpesvirus agent and may be effective in the treatment of resistant virus infections.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor