Hand washing compliance among retail food establishment workers in Minnesota.
ABSTRACT Inadequate hand washing by food workers is an important contributing factor to foodborne disease outbreaks in retail food establishments (RFEs). We conducted a survey of RFEs to investigate the effect of hand washing training, availability of hand washing facilities, and the ability of the person in charge (PIC) to describe hand washing according to the Minnesota Food Code (food code) on workers' ability to demonstrate food code-compliant hand washing. Only 52% of the PICs could describe the hand washing procedure outlined in the food code, and only 48% of workers could demonstrate code-compliant hand washing. The most common problems observed were failure to wash for 20 s and failure to use a fingernail brush. There was a strong positive association between the PIC being a certified food manager and being able to describe the food code hand washing procedure (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 13.7), and there was an even stronger association between the PIC being able to describe hand washing and workers being able to demonstrate code-compliant hand washing (OR, 15; 95% CI, 6 to 37). Significant associations were detected among correct hand washing demonstration, physical infrastructure for hand washing, and the hand washing training methods used by the establishment. However, the principal determinant of successful hand washing demonstration was the PIC's ability to describe proper hand washing procedure. These results suggest that improving hand washing practices among food workers will require interventions that address PIC knowledge of hand washing requirement and procedure and the development and implementation of effective hand washing training methods.
SourceAvailable from: Nik Rosmawati Nik Husain[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Food-borne diseases represent a widespread and growing public health problem, both in developed and developing countries. A great proportion of these cases were attributed to contamination of food and drinking water. Improving the knowledge of food-borne diseases would contribute to the practicing good preventive measures. This study will determine the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and the effect of community intervention programs on food-borne diseases among housewives. Materials and methods: A single-arm community intervention study was conducted among housewives in the Nilam Bharu village, Kelantan between May 2010 and November 2011. An intervention program was carried out after pre-testing all respondents’ KAP using a structured and validated questionnaire via interview-guided, and reassessed again after three months. Results: of 87 respondents, 67 (74.7%) respondents had education up to secondary and tertiary level. The mean number of family members was 6.6 (sd=2.6) and almost half (49.4%) have incomes below the poverty level. Before the intervention, 25 (28.7%), 52 (59.8%) and 77 (88.9%) have a good score on knowledge, attitude and practice respectively. Community interventions showed a significant improvement of knowledge (p=0.006) and attitude (p<0.001). However, the practice component did not show a significant changed (p=0.180). Remarkable knowledge improvements noted on the general knowledge on the food poisoning, signs symptoms and complications and correct technique for hand washing. Conclusion: The intervention programmes successfully and significantly increases the knowledge as well as the attitude toward food poisoning among housewives43rd Asia- Pacific Academic Consortium on Public Health (APACPH) Conference, Seoul, Korea; 10/2011
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ABSTRACT: Infection with human norovirus (HuNoV) is considered a common cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Foodborne HuNoV outbreaks may result from consumption of food contaminated by an infected food handler in the foodservice environment, in which bare-hand contact, lack of hand washing, and inadequate cleaning and disinfection are common contributing factors. The goal of this study was to examine cross-contamination of a HuNoV surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV-1), during common procedures used in preparing fresh produce in a food service setting, including turning water spigots, handling and chopping Romaine lettuce, and washing hands. MNV-1 transfer % was log-transformed to achieve a normal distribution of the data and enable appropriate statistical analyses to be performed. MNV-1 transfer coefficients varied by surface type, and a greater affinity for human hands and chopped lettuce was observed. For example, greater transfer was observed from a contaminated stainless steel spigot to a clean hand (24% or 1.4-log transfer %) compared to transfer from hand to spigot (0.6% or -0.2-log transfer %). During the chopping of Romaine lettuce, MNV-1 was transferred from either a contaminated cutting board (25% or 1.4-log transfer %) or knife (~100% or 2.0-log transfer %) to lettuce at a significantly greater rate (p>0.05) than from contaminated lettuce to the board (2.1% or 0.3-log transfer %) and knife (1.2% or 0.06-log transfer %). No significant difference (p>0.05) in MNV-1 transfer coefficients was observed between bare hands and Romaine lettuce during handling. For handwashing trials, only one hand was inoculated with MNV-1 prior to washing. The handwashing methods included rubbing hands under tap water for at least 5s (average 2.8-log reduction) or washing hands for at least 20s with liquid soap (average 2.9-log reduction) or foaming soap (average 3.0-log reduction), but no statistical difference between these reductions was achieved (p>0.05). Despite the reductions of MNV-1 observed, residual virions were detected on both hands after washing in every replicate trial. This observation reveals that virions are transferred from one hand to the other during washing with and without soap. Each transfer scenario was repeated at least 9 times, and the data gathered indicate that MNV-1 transfers readily between common surfaces during food preparation. These data are important for the development of quantitative risk analyses, and will assist in the development of appropriate intervention strategies for enteric viruses in food preparation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.