Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance: Committee on Prevention of Obesity in Children and Youth

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 02/2005; 105(1):131-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2004.11.023
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Vivica I Kraak, Feb 02, 2015
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    • "The USDHHS further recommend that schools provide elementary school children with at least one daily break period of at least 20 minutes. Another widely cited recommendation at present is that children should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity each day (Koplan et al., 2005). Further guidelines have emphasized the need for children to accumulate more than the 60 minute minimum of moderate to vigorous physical activity, to incorporate several bouts of activity lasting 15 minutes or more each day, and to avoid extended bouts of inactivity (NASPE, 2004). "

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    • "Environmental and societal factors associated with food intake and physical activity should be the primary focus for understanding the macro-level impacts on obesity [6] [8] [9]. Schools are considered a primary setting for implementing childhood obesity programs because of school meal programs and physical activity education [8] [9] [10]. Research has indicated that students attending schools with à la carte programs (i.e., snack bars, vending machines, kiosks with individual food and beverage sales) consumed less fruits and vegetables, and had higher intakes of calories from total and saturated fat compared to students who were not exposed to à la carte programs [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is a global concern. The objectives of this meta-analytical study were to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based childhood obesity prevention programs, and to examine program components (moderators). The methods included searching databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and the university's EBSCOhost Web service) as well as handsearching reference lists of articles published in English. Selection criteria for studies to be included in the meta-analysis were limited to studies that reported body mass index (BMI) or skinfold thickness as outcome measures and were school-based obesity prevention interventions; cross-sectional design studies were excluded. We hypothesized the meta-analysis would yield a summary effect size of magnitude which would indicate that school-based interventions have been effective in improving children's BMI or skinfold thickness values. A total of 26 114 children from 27 school-based childhood obesity prevention programs provided 54 effect sizes. A random-effects model calculated a small summary effect size of 0.039 (95% confidence interval −0.013 to 0.092). Heterogeneity among studies was observed which disappeared after pooling studies that used a randomized controlled trial design with one program moderator (physical activity or nutrition). We failed to accept our hypothesis and concluded that overall, school-based interventions have not been effective for improving body mass index or skinfold thickness to curb childhood obesity; however, randomized controlled trials that focused on physical activity or nutrition appeared to produce promising results.
    Nutrition Research 01/2015; 35(3). DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2015.01.002 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "Schools provide an ideal environment for populationbased health education programs (Brackney & Cutshall, 2014; Thomas, 2006). Research on school-based interventions to promote health behaviors has proliferated in the past two decades, as schools have an existing infrastructure that can be targeted to integrate health education into the curriculum (Baranowski et al., 2002; Flodmarket al., 2006; Koplan et al., 2005; Nguyen, Kornman, & Baur, 2011; The HEALTHY Study Group, 2010). The majority of programs have been heterogeneous and include some combination of health education (e.g., healthy eating and PA), behavioral strategies (e.g., goal setting), parental education and support, environmental modification (e.g., salad bar in cafeteria), and/or policy change (e.g., physical education class requirement ). "
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    ABSTRACT: Healthy behaviors including limited screen time (ST), high physical activity (PA), and adequate fruits and vegetables consumption (FV) are recommended for adolescents, but it is unclear how gender, race/ethnicity, and weight status relate to these public health guidelines in diverse urban adolescents. Participants (N = 384) were recruited from three public high schools in or near New Haven, Connecticut. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Most adolescents exceeded recommended levels of ST (70.5%) and did not meet guidelines for PA (87.2%) and FV (72.6%). Only 3.5% of the sample met all three guidelines. Boys were more likely to meet guidelines for PA (p < .01), while girls were engaged in less ST (p < .001). Black, non-Latinos were less likely to meet PA guidelines (p < .05). There were no significant differences in meeting ST, PA, or FV guidelines by weight status for the overall sample or when stratified by gender or race/ethnicity. We found alarmingly low levels of healthy behaviors in normal weight and overweight/obese adolescents.
    The Journal of School Nursing 10/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1177/1059840514554089 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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