Risk factors and molecular analysis of community methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage.
ABSTRACT A total of 1,838 subjects from the community and 393 subjects from health care-related facilities in Taiwan were evaluated for the prevalence of nasal Staphylococcus aureus colonization and to identify risk factors associated with S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonization. Among the community subjects, 3.5% had nasal MRSA colonization. Subjects from health care-related facilities had a lower S. aureus colonization rate (19.1%) than community subjects (25.2%) but had a significantly higher rate of colonization with MRSA (7.63%). Age (P < 0.001) was a significant risk factor for S. aureus colonization, with subjects under age 20 years or between 71 and 80 years showing higher rates of colonization. Recent gastrointestinal disease (P = 0.011) and hospital admission (P = 0.026) were risk factors for nasal MRSA colonization. Comparison of hospital MRSA isolates with the colonization strains by staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) gene typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing revealed that most MRSA strains carried in the community were SCCmec type IV and that most clinical hospital isolates were type III, while health care facility-related carriage isolates were mainly SCCmec type III and type IV. Two new variant SCCmec types were identified. Six clusters of PFGE patterns were distinguished: two mainly comprised health care facility-related MRSA strains, three mainly comprised community MRSA strains, and one comprised mixed community and health care facility-related MRSA strains. In conclusion, a high prevalence of MRSA colonization was observed among people with no relationship to the hospital setting. The high level of multiple-drug resistance among community MRSA strains in association with the previously reported excessive use of antibiotics in Taiwan highlights the importance of the problem of antibiotic selective pressure. Our results indicate that both the clonal spread of MRSA and the transmission of hospital isolates contribute to the high MRSA burden in the community.
Article: Increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in household contacts of children with community acquired disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To measure Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal colonization prevalence in household contacts of children with current community associated (CA)-MRSA infections (study group) in comparison with a group of household contacts of children without suspected Staphylococcus aureus infection (a control group). This is a cross sectional study. Cultures of the anterior nares were taken. Relatedness of isolated strains was tested using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The prevalence of MRSA colonization in the study group was significantly higher than in the control group (18/77 (23%) vs 3/77 (3.9%); p ≤ 0.001). The prevalence of SA colonization was 28/77 (36%) in the study group and 16/77 (21%) in the control group (p = 0.032). The prevalence of SA nasal colonization among patients was 6/24 (25%); one with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 5 with MRSA. In the study (patient) group, 14/24 (58%) families had at least one household member who was colonized with MRSA compared to 2/29 (6.9%) in the control group (p = 0.001). Of 69 total isolates tested by PFGE, 40 (58%) were related to USA300. Panton-Valetine leukocidin (PVL) genes were detected in 30/52 (58%) tested isolates. Among the families with ≥1 contact colonized with MRSA, similar PFGE profiles were found between the index patient and a contact in 10/14 families. Prevalence of asymptomatic nasal carriage of MRSA is higher among household contacts of patients with CA-MRSA disease than control group. Decolonizing such carriers may help prevent recurrent CA-MRSA infections.BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2012; 12:45. · 3.12 Impact Factor
Article: Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is associated with higher all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage is a recognized risk factor for subsequent endogenous infections. However, the association between MRSA carriage and patient survival in hemodialysis patients has not been established. In March 2007, this prospective cohort study enrolled 306 outpatients under maintenance hemodialysis from a hospital-based dialysis center in Taiwan. They received two consecutive weekly nasal swab cultures at the beginning of the study. Patients having at least one positive culture of MRSA were defined as MRSA carriers. Subjects were followed up until December 31, 2008. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Main secondary outcomes were infection-related mortality and morbidity. We identified 29 MRSA carriers (9.48%) at study entry. After a median of 613 days of follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant survival differences between MRSA carriers and noncarriers (log-rank P = 0.02). Compared with noncarriers, MRSA carriers had a 2.46-fold increased risk of dying from any cause, after adjusting for covariates at the start of follow-up. The adjusted hazard ratios of infection-related mortality and occurrence of subsequent S. aureus infection in carriers were 4.99 and 4.31, respectively. A major limitation is the relatively small sample size of MRSA carriers. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that there may be an association between MRSA nasal carriage and poor clinical outcomes in an outpatient hemodialysis population. This underscores the need for routine surveillance of MRSA nasal carriage and should alert the physicians of a group at high risk of morbidity and mortality.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2011; 6(1):167-74. · 5.23 Impact Factor
Article: Factors associated with nasal colonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among healthy children in Taiwan.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been identified as a major cause of community-associated (CA) S. aureus infections in the past decade. The main reservoir in the community for MRSA and the factors contributing to its worldwide spread remain poorly defined. Between July 2005 and June 2008, a total of 6,057 healthy children 2 to 60 months of age were screened for carriage of S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae in Taiwan. The prevalence and epidemiological factors influencing MRSA carriage were determined. MRSA strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and underwent molecular characterization. The overall prevalences of MRSA and S. aureus carriage were 7.8% and 23.2%, respectively. A majority (88%) of MRSA isolates belonged to a common Asian-Pacific CA-MRSA lineage, multilocus sequence type 59, and were resistant to multiple non-beta-lactam antibiotics. The carriage rate of MRSA was higher among subjects 2 to 6 months old (P < 0.0001), residing in northern Taiwan (P = 0.0003), and enrolled later in the study (P < 0.0001). MRSA colonization was associated with the number of children in the family (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.114; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002 to 1.240; P = 0.0463) and day care attendance (aOR, 1.530; 95% CI, 1.201 to 1.949; P = 0.0006). Breast feeding (P < 0.0001) and colonization with S. pneumoniae (P = 0.0170) were protective against MRSA colonization. We concluded that epidemic CA-MRSA strains increasingly colonized Taiwanese children between 2005 and 2008. The carriage rate varied significantly across different demographical features. Crowding was an independent environmental risk factor that might accelerate CA-MRSA transmission in the community.Journal of clinical microbiology 11/2010; 49(1):131-7. · 4.16 Impact Factor