Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in the Bata and Malabo districts of Equatorial Guinea.
ABSTRACT Bata and Malabo districts, Equatorial Guinea, 1 March 1999 to 28 February 2001.
To study the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB).
During the study period, 429 patients were diagnosed with TB in the Bata and Malabo districts. A positive culture was obtained in 206 (48%) TB patients, with RFLP analysis being performed in 185 (89.8%). Ninety-two different patterns were identified. Single patterns were found in 71 strains (38.3%) and the remaining 114 strains (61.6%) were classified into 21 clusters (of 2 to 25 patients). In addition, 37 of the typing strains were resistant to one or more anti-tuberculosis drugs, and 30 were included in clusters (81%), with 21 low level isoniazid (MIC < or = 1 microg/ml) resistance strains in the same cluster. Statistical analysis showed that resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.2-7.6; P = 0.014), and positive smear results (4+ grade smear) (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.5-12; P = 0.005), were significantly more frequent among patients with clustered strains. No epidemiological links were related to clustering.
The level of clustering (61.6%) observed suggests a high degree of recent transmission and a predominance of determined patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains among the population of Equatorial Guinea.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to assess the value of chest radiographs (CXRs) and sputum examinations in detecting pulmonary involvement of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). A retrospective analysis was performed among 248 EPTB patients with culture-proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen between January 2001 and December 2007 at a tertiary teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographics, clinical, laboratory and radiological findings were reviewed and assessed. This study was approved by the hospital ethics and research committee. One hundred twenty five of 233 EPTB patients (53.6%) had abnormal CXR findings. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of positive sputum culture results between patients with abnormal CXR findings (30/57) and those with normal CXR findings (4/17) (P = 0.04). Of 17 HIV-negative/unknown HIV-status EPTB patients with normal CXR results, 4 patients (23.5%) had positive sputum culture results. Intrathoracic lymphadenopathy (P < 0.001), pleural TB (P < 0. 001) and disseminated TB (P = 0.004) were associated with an increased risk of abnormal CXR findings. Patients with cough (52.9%), weight loss (41.2%) and night sweats (26.5%) are more likely to have positive sputum culture results. CXR findings are predictive of positive sputum culture results. However, the rate of normal CXR among EPTB patients with positive sputum culture results was relatively high. Therefore, respiratory specimen cultures should be obtained in TB suspects with a normal CXR to identify potentially infectious cases of TB.Journal of family & community medicine. 05/2012; 19(2):88-92.
Article: Is spinal tuberculosis contagious?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections are recognized for their public health implications, less is known about the infectiousness of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, specifically, spinal tuberculosis or Pott's disease. We present a case of spinal tuberculosis with concomitant active pulmonary tuberculosis in the absence of chest radiographic abnormalities or symptoms, and review the literature regarding infectiousness of concomitant spinal and pulmonary tuberculosis.International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases 02/2010; 14(8):e659-66. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The three French overseas departments of the Americas are characterized both by insular (Guadeloupe and Martinique) and continental (French Guiana) settings with a tuberculosis case detection rate that varies from less than 10 per 100,000 per year in insular areas to an estimated incidence of more than 55 per 100,000 in French Guiana. Under a long-term genotyping program, more than three-fourths of all the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (n = 744) received from the three settings were fingerprinted over a 10-year period (1994 to 2003) by spoligotyping and variable number of tandem DNA repeats (VNTRs) in order to understand the current trends in their detection rates, drug resistance, and groups and subpopulations at risk of contracting the disease and to pinpoint the circulating phylogeographical clades of the bacilli. The major difference in the study populations was the nationality of the patients, with a high percentage of immigrants from high-incidence neighboring countries in French Guiana and a low but increasing percentage in the French Caribbean. The rate of recent transmission was calculated to be 49.3% in French Guiana, compared to 27.2% and 16.9% in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively. At the phylogeographic level, 77.9% of the isolates studied belonged to four major clades (Haarlem, Latin-American and Mediterranean, T, and X) which are already reported from neighboring Caribbean islands in an international database and may underline potential interregional transmission events.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 02/2006; 44(1):183-91. · 4.07 Impact Factor