Meta-analysis of the association of a functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism with alcohol dependence
ABSTRACT The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to regulate alcohol consumption in both animals and humans. Since activity of the 5-HT transporter protein (5-HTT) regulates 5-HT levels, the gene encoding this protein may contribute to the risk of alcohol dependence (AD). Studies of the association to AD of a functional insertion-deletion polymorphism in the 5-HTT-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of data from 17 published studies (including 3,489 alcoholics and 2,325 controls) investigating the association between 5-HTTLPR alleles and AD. The frequency of the short (S) allele at 5-HTTLPR was significantly associated with AD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.03-1.33). Moreover, a greater association with the S allele was seen among individuals with AD complicated by either a co-morbid psychiatric condition or an early-onset or more severe AD subtype [OR = 1.34 (95% CI = 1.11-1.63)]. Allelic variation at 5-HTTLPR contributes to risk for AD, with the greatest effect observed among individuals with a co-occurring clinical feature.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between the long (l) and short (s) alleles of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the promoter region of the SLC6A4 gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using meta-analysis to combine all published data from case-control and family based association studies (2,283 cases). In stratified meta-analysis we investigated whether age of sample (child and adult), ethnicity (Caucasian and Asian) and study design (case-control and family-based association studies) moderated any association. In the overall meta-analysis we found no evidence of association between genetic variation at the 5-HTTLPR locus and OCD. We did find significant heterogeneity between studies. In the stratified meta-analyses, we demonstrated a significant association between the l-allele and OCD in family-based association studies and in studies involving children and Caucasians. Our meta-analysis suggests the possibility that the l-allele may be associated with OCD in specific OCD subgroups such as childhood-onset OCD and in Caucasians. Further meta-analyses based on individual patient data would be helpful in determining whether age of OCD onset, gender and the presence of comorbid illness (e.g., tics) moderates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and OCD.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 09/2008; 147B(6):850-8. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.30699 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with high rates of suicide attempt and completion. Substance use disorders (SUD) have been identified as potent risk factors for suicidal behavior in BD. However, little is known concerning differences between BD subtypes with regard to SUD as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. We studied previous suicidal behavior in adults with a major depressive episode in context of BD type I (BD-I; N=96) or BD type II (BD-II; N=42), with and without history of SUD. Logistic regressions assessed the association between SUD and suicide attempt history by BD type, and exploratory analyses examined the effects of other clinical characteristics on these relationships. SUD were associated with suicide attempt in BD-I but not BD-II, an effect not attributable to sample size differences. The higher suicide attempt rate associated with alcoholism in BD-I was mostly explained by higher aggression scores, and earlier age of BD onset increased the likelihood that alcohol use disorder would be associated with suicide attempt(s). The higher suicide attempt rate associated with other drug use disorders in BD-I was collectively explained by higher impulsivity, hostility, and aggression scores. The presence of both alcohol and drug use disorders increased odds of a history of suicide attempt in a multiplicative fashion: 97% of BD-I who had both co-morbid drug and alcohol use disorders had made a suicide attempt. A critical next question is how to target SUD and aggressive traits for prevention of suicidal behavior in BD-I.Journal of Psychiatric Research 07/2008; 43(3):230-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.05.001 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between functional polymorphisms of dopaminergic [dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3) and dopamine transporter (SLC6A3)] and serotonergic [serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A) and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4)] genes and treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent patients. A total of 90 Spanish Caucasian alcohol-dependent outpatients (ICD-10 criteria) were enrolled in the study. The association between genotypes and drinking outcomes was measured over 6 months of treatment. Biomarkers of alcohol consumption, as well as alcohol consumption and its consequences, craving, disability and quality of life, were assessed. Based on those measures, we created a composite secondary measure to globally assess treatment outcome in alcoholism. No association was found between DRD2, DRD3, SLC6A3 or HTR2A gene variants and treatment outcome. However, SLC6A4 STin2 12/12 carriers showed poor 6-month time point treatment outcome [32.8% in the good outcome group versus 64.0% in the poor outcome group, chi(2) (df) = 7.20 (1), corrected P = 0.042, OR (95% CI) = 0.27 (0.10-0.72)]. Nevertheless, independent analysis of each treatment group reveals that the excess of 12/12 carriers in the poor outcome group was only found in the naltrexone-treated group [24.1% versus 64.7% chi(2) (df) = 7.41 (1), corrected P = 0.042, OR (95% CI) = 0.17 (0.05-0.64)]. In the whole sample, the L-10 repeats haplotype (5-HTTLPR-STin2 VNTR) is associated with good outcome (LRT = 3.88, df = 1, P = 0.049). Our findings suggest that functional polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene may have an influence on treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent patients.Alcohol and Alcoholism 07/2008; 43(5):516-22. DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agn048 · 2.09 Impact Factor