A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed comparing the use of a short period (24 hr) of postextubation nasal continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) with direct extubation into headbox oxygen on the outcome of the need for reintubation within 7 days of initial extubation. Infants at less than 32 weeks of gestation who had received mechanical ventilation in the first 28 postnatal days and were being extubated for the first time were recruited. Ninety-seven babies were entered into the study (48 CPAP and 49 headbox oxygen). Twenty-four (49%) babies in the headbox group were reventilated within a week, compared to 16 (33%) in the CPAP group (P=0.17). By 14 days after initial extubation, 25 babies (51%) in the headbox group and 23 (48%) in the CPAP group required reventilation (P=0.9). There was a trend toward babies in the CPAP group requiring fewer reintubations (median, 2; range, 1-6) compared to those in the headbox group (median, 3; range, 1-7) (P=0.063). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to total number of days of ventilation (headbox median, 4; range, 1-24; CPAP median, 2; range, 1-20). In conclusion, this study showed that a short period of nasal CPAP is not associated with a reduction in reventilation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical ventilation is associated with significant short- and long-term morbidity in small preterm infants. Continuous positive airway pressure applied through nasal prongs is an effective, less-invasive method to improve gas exchange and reduce apnea in these infants. A large number of studies have evaluated the possibility of reducing the need or duration of mechanical ventilation by early use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure shortly after birth and by applying it after extubation. Although results of these trials have not been consistent, most of the evidence suggests that nasal continuous positive airway pressure is a viable alternative to mechanical ventilation in many preterm infants and that its use after extubation contributes to maintain better lung function and reduces apnea. Despite this, there is no evidence that these beneficial short-term effects translate into lower rates of long-term morbidity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neurologic sequelae or mortality rates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of mechanical ventilation for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in low birth weight infants may cause barotrauma, volutrauma, and chronic lung disease. Different continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivery systems exist, each with its own practical and clinical advantages and disadvantages. CPAP can be used as either a primary or an adjunctive respiratory support for RDS. Research demonstrates that CPAP decreases the incidence of respiratory failure after extubation. Clinical trials indicate that the optimal management of neonatal RDS consists of early surfactant treatment followed quickly by extubation and stabilization on CPAP. Early surfactant treatment combined with CPAP reduces the need for mechanical ventilation, compared to later surfactant treatment. Evidence suggests a synergistic effect between early surfactant administration and rapid extubation to nasal CPAP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large number of ventilation strategies are now available for the neonate. This review has focused on new information, that is, studies published since 2000 and the implication of their results for current clinical practice. Meta-analysis of randomised trials has demonstrated that assist control and synchronous intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) shortens the duration of ventilation only if started in the recovery rather than the early stage of respiratory disease. A recent randomised trial demonstrated pressure-regulated volume control ventilation may also have no advantages if started early. Weaning by SIMV with pressure support is better (reducing oxygen dependency) than SIMV alone. Meta-analysis of volume-targeted ventilation demonstrated significant reductions in the duration of ventilation and pneumothorax, but the trials were small and of different designs. Volume guarantee may provide more consistent blood gas control. The level of volume targeting appears to be crucial to the success of this technique. Meta-analysis of randomised trials of prophylactic high-frequency oscillation trials has shown a modest reduction in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Randomised trials have failed to confirm the advantages of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) seen in various non-randomised studies; however, the randomised trials reported to date have been small. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) does not improve the outcome of prematurely born infants with severe respiratory failure, but early low-dose prolonged iNO appears to have benefits that merit further testing. More randomised trials with long-term outcomes are required to identify the optimal ventilation strategy(ies) for the neonate.
European Journal of Pediatrics 11/2007; 166(10):991-6. DOI:10.1007/s00431-007-0513-0 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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