Measurements of Plasma Endothelin Immunoreactivity in Healthy Cats and Cats with Cardiomyopathy
ABSTRACT Plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent endogenous pressor substance discovered to date, are abnormally high in humans with congestive heart failure (CHF), and they correlate with the degree of functional impairment. We sought first to validate a human sandwich ELISA kit that targets that portion of the amino acid sequence that is identical in cats. The assay demonstrated linearity (R2 = .9968) and parallelism (P = .5339), recovery of spiked human ET-1 in cat plasma averaged 98.7%, and intraassay precision had a coefficient of variation <10%. We subsequently determined ET-1 immunoreactivity in healthy cats and in cats with myocardial disease with and without CHF, systemic thromboembolism (STE), or both. Plasma ET-1 immunoreactivity was measured in 12 healthy cats and in 28 cats with primary myocardial disease, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), or restrictive or unclassified cardiomyopathy (RCM and UCM), respectively. Plasma ET mean (95% CI) concentrations were 0.777 (0.6536-0.924) fmol/mL in the control cats, 1.427 (0.922-2.209) fmol/mL in 12 cats with cardiomyopathy (HCM = 11, RCM/UCM = 1) but without CHF or evidence of STE, and 2.360 (1.666-3.343) fmol/mL in 16 cats with cardiomyopathy (HCM = 8, RCM/UCM = 7, DCM = 1) and CHF (n = 15) or STE (n = 4). Plasma immunoreactivity of ET-1 was significantly higher in cats with myocardial disease without CHF/STE versus normal cats (P < .05) and in cats with myocardial disease with CHF/STE versus normal cats (P < .001).
- Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 18(6):797-9. · 2.22 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Edge detection using image feature detector[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new edge detection operator based on image features is proposed, which analyzes edges in images for edge features in two dimensions. The local extreme of the operator is created at the edge location and a low value is created at the smooth region. Edges can be located by obtaining the local extreme and a threshold of the operator response. The detection operator is shown to be better than the Canny operator in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and edge location accuracySignal Processing Proceedings, 1998. ICSP '98. 1998 Fourth International Conference on; 02/1998
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ABSTRACT: Current evidence favors the view that regardless of etiology, there is a predictable sequence of neuroendocrine activation that operates in most dogs and cats with progressive heart disease and that it is largely, but not entirely, independent of etiology. The natriuretic peptides and sympathetic nervous system seem to be early responders to developing cardiac and hemodynamic perturbations in both species. BNP plays a particularly prominent role in cats, possibly as a reflection of disease etiology. Shortly thereafter, plasma endothelin concentrations rise, reflecting the impact of the hemodynamic alterations on the vasculature. Endothelin and the natriuretic peptides directly suppress plasma renin release but have divergent effects on aldosterone. Activation of the tissue RAAS may operate early on to further the progression of heart failure, but evidence of plasma RAAS activation occurs comparatively late and near the time of development of overt CHF. Finally, in animals with severe CHF that are prone to hypotension,vasopressin levels may also rise, contributing to the retention of free water and congestion that is refractory to diuretics. Although oversimplified, this scenario seems to be consistent with data obtained in human, canine, and feline patients. These observations provide some impetus for evaluating ACE inhibitors in cats and beta-receptor-blocking drugs in dogs and cats. Perhaps we are also a little closer to identifying useful biochemical markers that can aid in the diagnosis of heart disease, guide therapy, and improve our understanding of the biologic processes occurring in our patients.Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 10/2004; 34(5):1105-26. DOI:10.1016/j.cvsm.2004.05.005 · 1.04 Impact Factor