Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers

Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.
Physiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.03). 02/2005; 83(5):699-709. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.09.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Members of the Sage family, such as Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia, have a long history of use as memory-enhancing agents coupled with cholinergic properties that may potentially be relevant to the amelioration of the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The current study utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover design in order to comprehensively assess any mood and cognition modulation by S. lavandulaefolia. Twenty-four participants received single doses of placebo, 25 microl and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil of S. lavandulaefolia in an order dictated by a Latin square. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period. Cognitive performance was assessed prior to the day's treatment and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery. Subjective mood ratings were measured using Bond-Lader visual analogue scales. The primary outcome measures were scores on the five cognitive factors that can be derived by factor analysis of the task outcomes from the CDR battery. The results showed that administration of S. lavandulaefolia resulted in a consistent improvement for both the 25- and 50-microl dose on the 'Speed of Memory' factor. There was also an improvement on the 'Secondary Memory' factor for the 25-microl dose. Mood was consistently enhanced, with increases in self-rated 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' following the 50-microl dose and elevated 'calmness' following 25 microl. These results represent further evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of mood and cognition in healthy young adults. The data also suggest that previous reports of memory enhancement by Salvia may be due to more efficient retrieval of target material.

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Available from: Andrew Scholey, Aug 11, 2015
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    • "Active ingredients used in energy drinks, such as taurine and guaraná, can also enhance memory (Alford et al., 2001; Haskell et al., 2007). There is also evidence that nicotine and sage have beneficial effects on memory (Tildsley et al., 2005; Heishman et al., 2010). In general, nootropics can enhance memory encoding, but also may influence retrieval processes. "
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    Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 03/2014; 8:30. DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00030
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    • "immediate and delayed word recall following oral administration of SL essential oil. A more detailed study was performed by Tildesley et al. (2005) in which participants were given either a placebo or a capsule containing 25 or 50 ml of SL essential oil mixed with sunflower oil. Each participant was then tested at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h after the administration of the capsule. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the potential for the aromas of the essential oils of Salvia species to affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Research has demonstrated that orally administered Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia are capable of modulating cognition and mood. The active compounds in the herbal products might also be present in the aromas and so produce similar effects. In an independent groups design, three conditions, S. officinalis aroma, S. lavandulaefolia aroma and no aroma were employed. One hundred and thirty-five healthy volunteers acted as participants, with 45 in each condition. Cognitive performance was assessed via the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) System. Bond-Lader mood scales measured the participants' mood on three dimensions before and after the cognitive tasks. Data analysis revealed that the S. officinalis aroma group performed significantly better than the control group on the quality of memory and secondary memory primary outcome factors from the test battery. The Alert mood measure displayed significant differences between both aromas and the control condition. These findings suggest that the aromas of essential oils of Salvia species reproduce some but not all of the effects found following oral herb administration, and that interesting dissociations occur between subjective and objective responses.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 07/2010; 25(5):388-96. DOI:10.1002/hup.1129 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    • "In the first of a series of double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover studies, Tildesley et al. (2003) demonstrated improvements to immediate and delayed recall tasks in healthy young humans at 1-h and 2.5-h following a single dose of 50 mL SL essential oil and at 2.5-h following 100 mL. Similar mnemonic effects were subsequently confirmed following 25 mL and 50 mL of the same essential oil, along with improved serial subtraction task performance and improved levels of subjective alertness, calmness and contentment (Tildesley et al., 2005). A similar pattern of mood effects was seen in comparison with placebo following 300 mg and 600 mg of encapsulated dried SO leaf, with reduced anxiety also evident following the lower dose, with these mood effects abolished by completion of a laboratory psychological stressor (Kennedy et al., 2006). "
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