Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers

Human Cognitive Neuroscience Unit, Division of Psychology, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST, UK.
Physiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.98). 02/2005; 83(5):699-709. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.09.010
Source: PubMed


Members of the Sage family, such as Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulaefolia, have a long history of use as memory-enhancing agents coupled with cholinergic properties that may potentially be relevant to the amelioration of the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. The current study utilised a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced, crossover design in order to comprehensively assess any mood and cognition modulation by S. lavandulaefolia. Twenty-four participants received single doses of placebo, 25 microl and 50 microl of a standardised essential oil of S. lavandulaefolia in an order dictated by a Latin square. Doses were separated by a 7-day washout period. Cognitive performance was assessed prior to the day's treatment and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery. Subjective mood ratings were measured using Bond-Lader visual analogue scales. The primary outcome measures were scores on the five cognitive factors that can be derived by factor analysis of the task outcomes from the CDR battery. The results showed that administration of S. lavandulaefolia resulted in a consistent improvement for both the 25- and 50-microl dose on the 'Speed of Memory' factor. There was also an improvement on the 'Secondary Memory' factor for the 25-microl dose. Mood was consistently enhanced, with increases in self-rated 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' following the 50-microl dose and elevated 'calmness' following 25 microl. These results represent further evidence that Salvia is capable of acute modulation of mood and cognition in healthy young adults. The data also suggest that previous reports of memory enhancement by Salvia may be due to more efficient retrieval of target material.

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    • "Also, the mood-enhancing properties of the herb may have applications in the treatment of advanced dementia, in which disturbed mood and agitation feature as a major problem.[29] There is no report of negative side effects associated with S. officinalis or S. lavandulaefolia despite many years of usage.[29] "
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    ABSTRACT: For a long time, sage (Salvia) species have been used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, protecting the body against oxidative stress, free radical damages, angiogenesis, inflammation, bacterial and virus infection, etc., Several studies suggest that sage species can be considered for drug development because of their reported pharmacology and therapeutic activities in many countries of Asia and Middle East, especially China and India. These studies suggest that Salvia species, in addition to treating minor common illnesses, might potentially provide novel natural treatments for the relief or cure of many serious and life-threatening diseases such as depression, dementia, obesity, diabetes, lupus, heart disease, and cancer. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the botanical, chemical, and pharmacological aspects of sage (Saliva).
    Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 03/2014; 4(2):82-88. DOI:10.4103/2225-4110.130373
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    • "Active ingredients used in energy drinks, such as taurine and guaraná, can also enhance memory (Alford et al., 2001; Haskell et al., 2007). There is also evidence that nicotine and sage have beneficial effects on memory (Tildsley et al., 2005; Heishman et al., 2010). In general, nootropics can enhance memory encoding, but also may influence retrieval processes. "
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    Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 03/2014; 8:30. DOI:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00030
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    • "Secondly, given the exploratory nature of the study, no adjustment was made for multiple comparisons (although we did implement a number of safeguards against conflated Type 1 error). This follows the recommendations of Keppel (1991) and is consistent with analyses utilised in a series of similar, acute dose-ranging studies (Haskell et al. 2007; Kennedy et al. 2001a, b, 2002; Kennedy et al. 2003; Reay et al. 2005, 2006; Scholey et al. 2008; Tildesley et al. 2005). We are aware that adjusting the alpha level to allow for multiple comparisons would have yielded fewer significant findings. "
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