Syntaxin 6 and Vti1b form a novel SNARE complex, which is up-regulated in activated macrophages to facilitate exocytosis of tumor necrosis Factor-alpha.
ABSTRACT A key function of activated macrophages is to secrete proinflammatory cytokines such as TNFalpha; however, the intracellular pathway and machinery responsible for cytokine trafficking and secretion is largely undefined. Here we show that individual SNARE proteins involved in vesicle docking and fusion are regulated at both gene and protein expression upon stimulation with the bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide. Focusing on two intracellular SNARE proteins, Vti1b and syntaxin 6 (Stx6), we show that they are up-regulated in conjunction with increasing cytokine secretion in activated macrophages and that their levels are selectively titrated to accommodate the volume and timing of post-Golgi cytokine trafficking. In macrophages, Vti1b and syntaxin 6 are localized on intracellular membranes and are present on isolated Golgi membranes and on Golgi-derived TNFalpha vesicles budded in vitro. By immunoprecipitation, we find that Vti1b and syntaxin 6 interact to form a novel intracellular Q-SNARE complex. Functional studies using overexpression of full-length and truncated proteins show that both Vti1b and syntaxin 6 function and have rate-limiting roles in TNFalpha trafficking and secretion. This study shows how macrophages have uniquely adapted a novel Golgi-associated SNARE complex to accommodate their requirement for increased cytokine secretion.
- SourceAvailable from: Guillermo Arango Duque[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The evolution of macrophages has made them primordial for both development and immunity. Their functions range from the shaping of body plans to the ingestion and elimination of apoptotic cells and pathogens. Cytokines are small soluble proteins that confer instructions and mediate communication among immune and non-immune cells. A portfolio of cytokines is central to the role of macrophages as sentries of the innate immune system that mediate the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. In concert with other mediators, cytokines bias the fate of macrophages into a spectrum of inflammation-promoting "classically activated," to anti-inflammatory or "alternatively activated" macrophages. Deregulated cytokine secretion is implicated in several disease states ranging from chronic inflammation to allergy. Macrophages release cytokines via a series of beautifully orchestrated pathways that are spatiotemporally regulated. At the molecular level, these exocytic cytokine secretion pathways are coordinated by multi-protein complexes that guide cytokines from their point of synthesis to their ports of exit into the extracellular milieu. These trafficking proteins, many of which were discovered in yeast and commemorated in the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, coordinate the organelle fusion steps that are responsible for cytokine release. This review discusses the functions of cytokines secreted by macrophages, and summarizes what is known about their release mechanisms. This information will be used to delve into how selected pathogens subvert cytokine release for their own survival.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:491.
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages have the capacity to rapidly secrete a wide range of inflammatory mediators that influence the development and extent of an inflammatory response. Newly synthesized and/or preformed stored cytokines and other inflammatory mediators are released upon stimulation, the timing, and volume of which is highly regulated. To finely tune this process, secretion is regulated at many levels; at the level of transcription and translation and post-translationally at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and at or near the cell surface. Here, we discuss recent advances in deciphering these cytokine pathways in macrophages, focusing on recent discoveries regarding the cellular machinery and mechanisms implicated in the synthesis, trafficking, and secretion of cytokines. The specific roles of trafficking machinery including chaperones, GTPases, cytoskeletal proteins, and SNARE membrane fusion proteins will be discussed.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:538.
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ABSTRACT: Upon activation mast cells (MCs) secrete numerous inflammatory compounds stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules by a process called anaphylactic degranulation, which is responsible for type I hypersensitivity responses. Prestored mediators include histamine and MC proteases but also some cytokines and growth factors making them available within minutes for a maximal biological effect. Degranulation is followed by the de novo synthesis of lipid mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes as well as a vast array of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, which are responsible for late phase inflammatory responses. While lipid mediators diffuse freely out of the cell through lipid bilayers, both anaphylactic degranulation and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors depends on highly regulated vesicular trafficking steps that occur along the secretory pathway starting with the translocation of proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum. Vesicular trafficking in MCs also intersects with endocytic routes, notably to form specialized cytoplasmic granules called secretory lysosomes. Some of the mediators like histamine reach granules via specific vesicular monoamine transporters directly from the cytoplasm. In this review, we try to summarize the available data on granule biogenesis and signaling events that coordinate the complex steps that lead to the release of the inflammatory mediators from the various vesicular carriers in MCs.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:453.