Evidence for two phenotypes in the metabolism of methotrexate to 7-hydroxymethotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.87). 01/2005; 52(1):356-8. DOI: 10.1002/art.20742
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Methotrexate (MTX) has emerged as first-line therapy for early moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but individual variation in treatment response remains unexplained. We tested the associations between 863 known pharmacogenetic variants and MTX response in 471 Treatment of Early Aggressive Rheumatoid Arthritis Trial participants with early RA. Efficacy and toxicity were modeled using multiple regression, adjusted for demographic and clinical covariates. Penalized regression models were used to test joint associations of markers and/or covariates with the outcomes. The strongest genetic associations with efficacy were in CHST11 (five markers with P<0.003), encoding carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11. Top markers associated with MTX toxicity were in the cytochrome p450 genes CYP20A1 and CYP39A1, solute carrier genes SLC22A2 and SLC7A7, and the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALDH2. The selected markers explained a consistently higher proportion of variation in toxicity than efficacy. These findings could inform future development of personalized therapeutic approaches.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 2 April 2013; doi:10.1038/tpj.2013.11.
    The Pharmacogenomics Journal 04/2013; 14(1). DOI:10.1038/tpj.2013.11 · 5.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MTX is a prodrug producing anti-arthritic effects through a folylpolyglutamate synthase-mediated activation to MTX polyglutamates (MTXPGs). Our objective was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of intracellular MTXPGs and the factors associated with their accumulation in adult RA patients treated with MTX weekly. MTX pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 47 MTX-naïve patients enrolled in an MTX dose-escalation study for an average of 20 weeks and 223 patients enrolled in a cross-sectional study under long-term MTX therapy. Short-chain (MTXPG1-2), long-chain (MTXPG3) and very long-chain (MTXPG4-5) concentrations were measured in circulating red blood cells using liquid chromatography. Statistical analyses consisted of non-linear mixed models, multivariate regression analyses and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The accumulation of MTXPG1-5 was sigmoidal and steady-state concentrations were achieved after 7 weeks of therapy. However, additional exposure and MTX dosage escalation produced a selective redistribution towards longer chain MTXPGs at the expense of shorter chain MTXPGs. Age, glomerular filtration rate and route of MTX administration were the most important predictors of MTXPG accumulation. In 10 patients, a switch from oral to parenteral MTX was associated with a 37% increase in long-chain MTXPGs, a 132% increase in very long-chain MTXPGs and a concomitant 31% reduction in disease activity (P<0.02). The selective emergence of long-chain MTXPGs is function of dose, time of exposure and hence dosage intensity. Switching from oral to parenteral MTX produces a selective accumulation of longer chain MTXPGs that are known to be more potent inhibitors of de novo purine biosynthesis than shorter chain MTXPGs.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 12/2010; 49(12):2337-45. DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/keq216 · 4.44 Impact Factor
  • Personalized Medicine 05/2006; 3(2):151-163. DOI:10.2217/17410541.3.2.151 · 1.13 Impact Factor