Molecular evolution of breat cancer

The Breakthrough Toby Robins Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.
The Journal of Pathology (Impact Factor: 7.43). 01/2005; 205(2):248-54. DOI: 10.1002/path.1691
Source: PubMed


Molecular analysis of invasive breast cancer and its precursors has furthered our understanding of breast cancer progression. In the past few years, new multi-step pathways of breast cancer progression have been delineated through genotypic-phenotypic correlations. Nuclear grade, more than any other pathological feature, is strongly associated with the number and pattern of molecular genetic abnormalities in breast cancer cells. Thus, there are two distinct major pathways to the evolution of low- and high-grade invasive carcinomas: whilst the former consistently show oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) positivity and 16q loss, the latter are usually ER/PgR-negative and show Her-2 overexpression/amplification and complex karyotypes. The boundaries between the evolutionary pathways of well-differentiated/low-grade ductal and lobular carcinomas have been blurred, with changes in E-cadherin expression being one of the few distinguishing features between the two. In addition, lesions long thought to be precursors of breast carcinomas, such as hyperplasia of usual type, are currently considered mere risk indicators, whilst columnar cell lesions are now implicated as non-obligate precursors of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and well-differentiated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). However, only through the combination of comprehensive morphological analysis and cutting-edge molecular tools can this knowledge be translated into clinical practice and patient management.

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    • "Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women worldwide, and its incidence, unfortunately, continues to rise. Breast tumor is a heterogeneous disease derived from different molecular subtypes and displaying varied clinical behavior [1]. Considerable efforts have been made to improve survival via early diagnosis and treatment with targeted therapies [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Aberrant hypermethylation of gene promoter regions is a primary mechanism by which tumor suppressor genes become inactivated in breast cancer. Epigenetic inactivation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-type O gene (PTPRO) has been described in several types of cancer. Results We screened primary breast cancer tissues for PTPRO promoter hypermethylation and assessed potential associations with pathological features and patient outcome. We also evaluated its potential as a breast cancer biomarker. PTPRO methylation was observed in 53 of 98 (54%) breast cancer tissues but not in adjacent normal tissue. Among matched peripheral blood samples from breast cancer patients, 33 of 98 (34%) exhibited methylated PTPRO in plasma. In contrast, no methylated PTPRO was observed in normal peripheral blood from 30 healthy individuals. PTPRO methylation was positively associated with lymph node involvement (P = 0.014), poorly differentiated histology (P = 0.037), depth of invasion (P = 0.004), and HER2 amplification (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that aberrant PTPRO methylation could serve as an independent predictor for overall survival hazard ratio (HR): 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.2; P = 0.023), especially for patients with HER2-positive (hazard ratio (HR): 7.5; 95% CI: 1.8-31.3; P = 0.006), but not in ER + and PR + subpopulation. In addition, demethylation induced by 5-azacytidine led to gene reactivation in PTPRO-methylated and -silenced breast cancer cell lines. Conclusions Here, we report that tumor PTPRO methylation is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer. Methylation of PTPRO silences its expression and plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. The data we present here may provide insight into the development of novel therapies for breast cancer treatment. Additionally, detection of PTPRO methylation in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients may provide a noninvasive means to diagnose and monitor the disease.
    BMC Genetics 06/2014; 15(1):67. DOI:10.1186/1471-2156-15-67 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease encompassing a wide variety of pathological features and a range of clinical behavior [13]. These are underpinned at the molecular level by complex components of genetic alterations that affect cellular processes [14]. Therefore, it is possible to contribute for understanding of the heterogeneity and diagnosis with high accuracy by discovering novel fusion genes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fusion genes have been recognized to play key roles in oncogenesis. Though, many techniques have been developed for genome-wide analysis of fusion genes, a more efficient method is desired. We introduced a new method of detecting the novel fusion gene by using GeneChip Exon Array that enables exon expression analysis on a whole-genome scale and TAIL-PCR. To screen genes with abnormal exon expression profiles, we developed computational program, and confirmed that the program was able to search the fusion partner gene using Exon Array data of T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) cell lines. It was reported that the T-ALL cell lines, ALL-SIL, BE13 and LOUCY, harbored the fusion gene NUP214-ABL1, NUP214-ABL1 and SET-NUP214, respectively. The program extracted the candidate genes with abnormal exon expression profiles: 1 gene in ALL-SIL, 1 gene in BE13, and 2 genes in LOUCY. The known fusion partner gene NUP214 was included in the genes in ALL-SIL and LOUCY. Thus, we applied the proposed program to the detection of fusion partner genes in other tumors. To discover novel fusion genes, we examined 24 breast cancer cell lines and 20 pancreatic cancer cell lines by using the program. As a result, 20 and 23 candidate genes were obtained for the breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines respectively, and seven genes were selected as the final candidate gene based on information of the EST data base, comparison with normal cell samples and visual inspection of Exon expression profile. Finding of fusion partners for the final candidate genes was tried by TAIL-PCR, and three novel fusion genes were identified. The usefulness of our detection method was confirmed. Using this method for more samples, it is thought that fusion genes can be identified.
    Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics 02/2014; 4(1):3. DOI:10.1186/2043-9113-4-3
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    • "Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer and the second most common cause of mortality in women due to cancer (Siegel et al., 2011). It is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a variety of clinical patterns, biological behaviors, prognostic characteristics, and responses to different types of treatment (Simpson et al., 2005). Ambitious efforts have been made to improve overall survival (OS) and morbidity by early diagnosis and multiple therapies (Curigliano et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Immune functions and their relation to prognosis in breast cancer patients have become areas of great interest in recent years. Correlations between survival outcomes and peripheral blood flow cytometry parameters are therefore of interest. Here we focused on patients with non-metastatic breast cancer (BC). Materials and methods: A total of 29 patients with pathological confirmed breast carcinoma and flow cytometry data were assessed for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). Results: The median age of the patients was 54 years (range, 29-83). Multivariate analysis revealed that OS was significantly associated with absolute cytotoxic T cell count (95%CI, coef 2.26, p=0.035), tumor size (95%CI, coef -14.5, p 0.004), chemotherapy (95%CI, coef 12.9, p 0.0001), MFI of CD4 (95%CI, coef -5.1, P 0.04), MFI of HLA DR (95%CI, coef -5.9, p 0.008) and tumor grade (95%CI, coef -13, P 0.049) with R-Sq(adj)=67%. Similar findings were obtained for PFS. Conclusions: OS and PFS were significantly associated with tumor grade, tumor size, chemotherapy, MFI of CD4, HLA DR and absolute cytotoxic T cell count. The study revealed that MFI of basic CD markers and absolute cytotoxic T cell number may be a prognostic factors in women with non-metastatic BC.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 12/2013; 14(12):7645-9. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.12.7645 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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