Article

Effects of climate on admission rates of schizophrenia patients to psychiatric hospitals

Tel Aviv University, Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
European Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.44). 01/2005; 20(1):61-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2004.09.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Data on admissions of schizophrenia- and schizoaffective disorder patients to Tel-Aviv's seven public psychiatric hospitals during 11 consecutive years were obtained along with relevant meteorological information. Mean monthly admission rates were significantly higher during the summer (for schizophrenia patients) and fall (for schizoaffective patients). Schizophrenia patients' mean monthly admission rates correlated with mean maximal monthly environmental temperature (R = 0.35, N = 132 months, P <0.001). The present study may indicate that persistent high environmental temperature may be a contributing factor for psychotic exacerbation in schizophrenia patients and their consequent admission to mental hospitals.

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    • "Climatic variables that have been associated to those variations in admissions include temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and duration/intensity of sunshine (Bauer et al., 2009; Carney et al., 1988; Davies et al., 2000; Gupta and Murray, 1992; Lee et al., 2002; Lee et al., 2007; Mawson and Smith, 1981; Myers and Davies, 1978; Peck, 1990; Sayer et al., 1991; Shapira et al., 2004; Shiloh et al., 2005; Suhail and Cochrane, 1998; Volpe and Del Porto, 2006; Volpe et al., 2010). According to those findings, some hypotheses emerged, involving the climate driven changes in social behavior, but mostly, regarding the effects of meteorological conditions on the brain, more specifically, on neurotransmission. "
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    ABSTRACT: Distinct seasonal variation in hospital admission and various associations with the climatic parameters for mood disorders and schizophrenia have been previously reported in several world regions. There are, however, no North-African studies on this association. The charts of 1987 patients with mood disorders (mania 1181, depression 806) and 1359 patients with schizophrenia admitted from 2003 to 2007 from an university hospital at Mansoura, Egypt, were reviewed. Seasonality was assessed with Cosinor Analysis. Correlations of the rate of admissions for affective disorders and schizophrenia to climatic variables were performed, including lagged and differenced data. There was a significant seasonal variation in the monthly admission frequencies both for mania (peak in June) and for depression (peak in December) but no significant seasonal variation was found in admissions with diagnosis of schizophrenia. The number of admissions for mania was positively correlated to indicators of temperature and luminosity, but inversely correlated to relative humidity. Quite the opposite, the number of admissions for depression showed a negative correlation to temperature and luminosity, but a positive correlation to relative humidity. 55-57% of the monthly variance of the number of admissions for mood disorders was explained by climatic variables. Seasonality of admissions for mood disorders, but not for schizophrenia, has been demonstrated, in an African Mediterranean region with a fairly constant climate. The association between admission rates and climatic variables found in this study could pave the way for further studies aiming at exploration of the biological mechanism of this association as well as tailoring of treatment interventions on mood disorders.
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    • "Climatic variables that have been associated to those variations in admissions include temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and duration/intensity of sunshine (Bauer et al., 2009; Carney et al., 1988; Davies et al., 2000; Gupta and Murray, 1992; Lee et al., 2002; Lee et al., 2007; Mawson and Smith, 1981; Myers and Davies, 1978; Peck, 1990; Sayer et al., 1991; Shapira et al., 2004; Shiloh et al., 2005; Suhail and Cochrane, 1998; Volpe and Del Porto, 2006; Volpe et al., 2010). According to those findings, some hypotheses emerged, involving the climate driven changes in social behavior, but mostly, regarding the effects of meteorological conditions on the brain, more specifically, on neurotransmission. "
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    • "Compared with the general population, persons with mental health problems often experience poorer overall health with higher rates of morbidity and mortality (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006). Additionally, it has been well documented that, because of behavioral issues and medications that interfere with physiological homeostasis, those with mental illness are susceptible to the effects of extreme heat, as demonstrated by increases in hospital admissions (Kovats and Ebi 2006; Shiloh et al. 2005) and mortalities (Bark 1998; Basu and Samet 2002; Kaiser et al. 2001; Naughton et al. 2002) associated with heat waves. However, few studies have characterized specific mental and behavioral disorders (MBDs) that may be exacerbated by high temperatures. "
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to identify mental, behavioral, and cognitive disorders that may be triggered or exacerbated during heat waves, predisposing individuals to heat-related morbidity and mortality. Using health outcome data from Adelaide, South Australia, for 1993-2006, we estimated the effect of heat waves on hospital admissions and mortalities attributed to mental, behavioral, and cognitive disorders. We analyzed data using Poisson regression accounting for overdispersion and controlling for season and long-term trend, and we performed threshold analysis using hockey stick regression. Above a threshold of 26.7 degrees C, we observed a positive association between ambient temperature and hospital admissions for mental and behavioral disorders. Compared with non-heat-wave periods, hospital admissions increased by 7.3% during heat waves. Specific illnesses for which admissions increased included organic illnesses, including symptomatic mental disorders; dementia; mood (affective) disorders; neurotic, stress related, and somatoform disorders; disorders of psychological development; and senility. Mortalities attributed to mental and behavioral disorders increased during heat waves in the 65- to 74-year age group and in persons with schizophrenia, schizotypal, and delusional disorders. Dementia deaths increased in those up to 65 years of age. Our results suggest that episodes of extreme heat pose a salient risk to the health and well-being of the mentally ill. Improvements in the management and care of the mentally ill need to be addressed to avoid an increase in psychiatric morbidity and mortality as heat waves become more frequent.
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