Is frozen section analysis in nephron sparing surgery necessary? A clinicopathological study of 301 cases

Tel Aviv University, Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
The Journal of Urology (Impact Factor: 3.75). 03/2005; 173(2):385-7. DOI: 10.1097/01.ju.0000149111.48445.73
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT One of the basic principles of nephron sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma is resection of the tumor with normal tissue margins verified by frozen section analysis. In cases of positive tumor margins the surgeon is committed to complete the local resection or to perform radical nephrectomy. In this study we retrospectively evaluated the yield of frozen section analysis performed during nephron sparing surgeries, especially concerning compatibility with the final histological report and the long-term oncological outcome.
Between 1988 and 2003, 172 men and 129 women with a mean age of 59 years (range 16 to 83) underwent nephron sparing surgery due to suspected renal tumors. Mean tumor size was 3.56 cm (range 1 to 12.5). Frozen section analysis was routinely performed during surgery.
Positive tumor margins in frozen section analysis were found in 2 cases (0.7%). In both cases the tumor was centrally located. Those 2 patients underwent immediate radical nephrectomy but no residual tumor was subsequently found in the radical nephrectomy specimens. Paraffin sections disclosed positive tumor margins in 4 other cases (1.3%) in whom the frozen section analysis had shown tumor negative margins. Of the 4 patients 1 underwent radical nephrectomy for tumor recurrence after 9 months. The other 3 patients showed no evidence of disease recurrence after 26, 59 and 120 months of followup.
Our results suggest that frozen section analysis during nephron sparing surgery has minimal clinical significance and hence routine incorporation in urological practice should be reconsidered.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of perioperative freezing in the management of surgical procedures in patients with malignant renal masses. The study group consisted of 17 patients diagnosed with renal masses who underwent nephron-sparing surgery. The group included 5 females and 12 males aged from 44 to 68 years (mean = 54.6). The mean mass size was 5.5 cm. Mass locations were as follows: 9 were in the lower pole, 4 were in the mid-pole, and 6 were in the upper pole. Perioperative freezing was not carried out. The patients were followed-up in a period ranging from 3 months to 7 years. Tumor pathology was reported as renal cell carcinoma in all cases, and surgical margins were negative in all of them. One patient died after 1 year because of tumor metastasis. In another patient, the tumor reoccurred in the same kidney and a radical nephrectomy was performed. Other patients were followed without recurrence. Imaging of the renal vascular system and freezing during surgery is not necessary for nephron-sparing surgery for renal cell carcinoma; however, we should be careful in terms of capsule invasion because of tumor recurrence.
    Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 01/2014; 44(1):95-8. DOI:10.3906/sag-1210-15 · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increased use of nephron-sparing surgery to treat localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) lends weight to the question of the value of microscopically positive surgical margins (PSM) in cases with a tumor bed macroscopically free of residual tumor. The aim of this article is to highlight the data available on risk factors for PSM, their clinical relevance, and possible therapeutic consequences. For this purpose, publications on the incidence and relevance of PSM after partial nephrectomy from the last 15 years were examined and evaluated. We summarize that PSM are generally rare, regardless of the surgical procedure, and are seen more often in connection with an imperative indication for nephron-sparing surgery as well as a central tumor location. Most studies describe that PSM lead to a moderate increase in the rate of local relapses, but no study has thus far been able to demonstrate an association with poorer tumor-specific overall survival. Intraoperative frozen section analysis had no positive influence on the risk of definite PSM in most trials. Therefore, we conclude that PSM should definitely be avoided. However, in cases with a macroscopically tumor-free intraoperative resection bed, they should lead to close surveillance of the affected kidney and not to immediate (re)intervention.
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology 08/2014; 12(1):252. DOI:10.1186/1477-7819-12-252 · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Intraoperative frozen section (FS) evaluation for tumor margin during partial nephrectomy (PN) is a matter of controversy in urologic oncology. We evaluated the preferences and practice patterns of urologists regarding intraoperative FS during PN. Methods: A 17-item questionnaire was designed to collect information on surgeons' preferences and practice patterns regarding FS during PN. The survey was sent to the members of the Society of Urologic Oncology and Endourological Society. Results: A total of 197 responses were received. Overall, 69% and 58% of respondents chose to obtain FS (always or sometimes) during open PN (OPN) and laparoscopic PN (LPN), respectively. There was a strong correlation between the surgeons' preferences during OPN and LPN. Younger surgeons are less likely to obtain FS during OPN. For surgeons who did not routinely obtain FS, "confidence about complete resection" was the most common reason (79%), followed by "no change in management with positive margins" (35%). Most surgeons (75%) believed the margins to be negative, if surgical margin was free of tumor microscopically by a single cell layer. Older surgeons considered negative margins to be free of tumor microscopically by >= 5 mm. Overall, 54% and 42% of respondents would repeat FS for positive microscopic margins during OPN and LPN, respectively. Of the respondents, 95% would not recommend additional treatment for positive margins on final pathology. Conclusion: Despite recent literature pointing to low clinical utility of FS, most surgeons still obtain FS during PN. Older surgeons tend to obtain FS more often. Fellowship training and practice type do not appear to influence preferences and practice patterns in regard to FS.
    Urologic Oncology 05/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.02.015 · 3.36 Impact Factor