Tissue Doppler imaging provides incremental prognostic value in patients with systemic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy
ABSTRACT We sought to determine the prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mitral annular velocities measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in hypertensive patients with echocardiographic evidence of LV hypertrophy.
Echo LV hypertrophy and LV geometry provide additional predictive value of all-cause mortality beyond traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Limited data exist regarding the predictive value of TDI velocities for cardiovascular risk stratification in treated hypertensive patients.
Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiograms were obtained in 252 consecutive subjects, including 174 subjects with systemic hypertension and 78 age-matched normal subjects. The end point was cardiac death in subsequent median follow-up of 19 months.
Nineteen patients (7.54%) died of cardiac causes. The TDI mitral annulus systolic velocity and the early diastolic mitral annular velocity (Em) were significantly lower in the non-survivors (all P < 0.001). The pseudonormal (PN) or restrictive filling pattern (RFP) was associated with cardiac mortality. The other parameters associated with cardiac mortality were LV ejection fraction, LV mass index, inter-ventricular septal wall thickness in diastole and the ratio of early mitral inflow to early myocardial velocity. In multivariate analysis, Em, inter-ventricular septal wall thickness in diastole and either PN or RFP were the strongest predictors. The addition of Em < 3.5 cm/s significantly improved the outcome of a model that contained clinical risk factors, inter-ventricular septal wall thickness in diastole > 1.4 cm and either PN or RFP (P = 0.043).
Early diastolic mitral annulus velocity measured by TDI provides prognostic information, incremental to clinical data and standard echocardiographic variables, for risk stratification of hypertensive patients under treatment.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of 3 and 6 months of regular football training on cardiac structure and function in hypertensive men. Thirty-one untrained males with mild-to-moderate hypertension were randomized 2:1 to a football training group (n = 20) and a control group receiving traditional recommendations on healthy lifestyle (n = 11). Cardiac measures were evaluated by echocardiography. The football group exhibited significant (P < 0.05) changes in cardiac dimensions and function after just 3 months: Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume increased from 104 ± 25 to 117 ± 29 mL. LV diastolic function improved measured as E/A ratio (1.15 ± 0.32 to 1.54 ± 0.38), early diastolic velocity, E' (11.0 ± 2.5 to 11.9 ± 2.6 cm/s), and isovolumetric relaxation time (74 ± 13 to 62 ± 13 ms). LV systolic function improved measured as longitudinal displacement (10.7 ± 2.1 to 12.1 ± 2.3 mm). Right ventricular function improved with respect to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (21.8 ± 3.2 to 24.5 ± 3.7 mm). Arterial blood pressure decreased in both groups, but significantly more in the football training group. No significant changes were observed in the control group. In conclusion, short-term football training improves LV diastolic function in untrained men with mild-to-moderate arterial hypertension. Furthermore, it may improve longitudinal systolic function of both ventricles. The results suggest that football training has favorable effects on cardiac function in hypertensive men.Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 06/2014; DOI:10.1111/sms.12237 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction assessed by cardiac catheterization may be associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events. To test the hypothesis, we assessed diastolic function by cardiac catheterization (relaxation time constant (Tau) and end-diastolic pressure (EDP)) as well as Doppler echocardiography (early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e') and a ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow to annular velocities (E/e')) in 222 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization for coronary artery disease (CAD). During a followup of 1364 ± 628 days, 5 cardiac deaths and 20 unscheduled cardiovascular hospitalizations were observed. Among LV diastolic function indices, Tau > 48 ms and e' < 5.8 cm/s were each significantly associated with lower rate of survival free of cardiovascular hospitalization. Even after adjustment for potential confounders (traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the severity of CAD, and cardiovascular medications), the predictive value of Tau > 48 ms and e' < 5.8 cm/s remained significant. No predictive value was observed in EDP, E/e', or LV ejection fraction. In conclusion, LV diastolic dysfunction, particularly impaired LV relaxation assessed by both cardiac catheterization and Doppler echocardiography, is independently associated with increased risk for cardiac death or cardiovascular hospitalization in patients with known or suspected CAD.04/2012; 2012:243735. DOI:10.1155/2012/243735