Treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome with aripiprazole
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.76). 03/2005; 25(1):94-6. DOI: 10.1097/01.jcp.0000150229.69124.66
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ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor/phonic tics and a wide spectrum of behavioral problems (e.g., complex tic-like symptoms, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder). TS can be a challenging condition even for the specialists, because of the complexity of the clinical picture and the potential adverse effects of the most commonly prescribed medications. Expert opinions and consensus guidelines on the assessment and treatment of tic disorders have recently been published in Europe and Canada. All pharmacological treatment options are mere symptomatic treatments that alleviate, but do not cure, the tics. We still lack evidence of their effects on the natural long-term course and on the prognosis of TS and how these treatments may influence the natural course of brain development. The most commonly prescribed drugs are dopamine antagonists, such as typical (e.g., haloperidol, pimozide) and atypical neuroleptics (e.g., risperidone, aripiprazole), and α-2-adrenoreceptor agonists (e.g., clonidine). However, several studies have investigated the efficacy and tolerability of alternative pharmacological agents that may be efficacious, including the newest atypical antipsychotic agents (e.g., paliperidone, sertindole), tetrabenazine, drugs that modulate acetylcholine (e.g., nicotine) and GABA (e.g., baclofen, levetiracetam), tetrahydrocannabinol, botulinum toxin injections, anticonvulsant drugs (e.g., topiramate, carbamazepine), naloxone, lithium, norepinephrine, steroid 5α reductase, and other neuroactive agents (buspirone, metoclopramide, phytostigmine, and spiradoline mesylate). As regards nonpharmacological interventions, some of the more recent treatments that have been studied include electroconvulsive therapy and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. This review focuses primarily on the efficacy and safety of these emerging treatment strategies in TS.International Review of Neurobiology 01/2013; 112:445-80. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-411546-0.00015-9 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder of childhood onset characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics that fluctuate over time. Tic symptoms often improve by late adolescence, but some children and adults with TS may experience significant tic-related morbidity, including social and family problems, academic difficulties, and pain. When more conservative interventions are not successful, and when certain psychiatric co-morbidities further complicate the clinical profile, treating TS with an atypical antipsychotic medication may be a reasonable second-tier approach. However, the evidence supporting efficacy and safety of the atypical antipsychotics for treatment of tics is still very limited. The objective of this paper is to provide an updated overview of the role of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of TS, with evidence-based guidance on their use. Evidence for efficacy of different typical and atypical antipsychotics for treatment of tics was examined by conducting a systematic, keyword-related search of 'atypical antipsychotics' and 'Tourette's syndrome' in PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA). Four recent treatment consensus publications were also reviewed. This review focused on literature published from 2000 to 2013 and on available randomized controlled trials in TS. Evidence supporting the use of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of TS is limited. There are few randomized medication treatment trials in TS (i.e. risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone), which employed varying methodologies, thereby restricting meaningful comparisons among studies. Future collaborations among clinical sites with TS expertise employing high-quality study design may better elucidate the role of atypical antipsychotics for treatment of TS.Drugs 07/2014; 74(11). DOI:10.1007/s40265-014-0254-0 · 4.13 Impact Factor
Bulletin of Clinical Psychopharmacology 01/2014; DOI:10.5455/bcp.20121203034039 · 0.37 Impact Factor
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