The role of LIP5 and CHMP5 in multivesicular body formation and HIV-1 budding in mammalian cells.
ABSTRACT We examined the function of LIP5 in mammalian cells, because the yeast homologue Vta1p was recently identified as a protein required for multivesicular body (MVB) formation. LIP5 is predominantly a cytosolic protein. Depletion of LIP5 by small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) does not affect the distribution or morphology of early endosomes, lysosomes, or Golgi but does reduce the degradation of internalized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), with EGFR accumulating in intracellular vesicles. Depletion of LIP5 by siRNA also decreases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) budding by 70%. We identify CHMP5 as a LIP5-binding protein and show that CHMP5 is primarily cytosolic. Depletion of CHMP5 by siRNA does not affect the distribution or morphology of early endosomes, lysosomes, or Golgi but does result in reduced degradation of the EGFR similar to silencing of LIP5. Surprisingly, CHMP5 depletion results in an increase in the release of infectious HIV-1 particles. Overexpression of CHMP5 with a large carboxyl-terminal epitope affects the distribution of both early and late endocytic compartments, whereas overexpression of LIP5 does not alter the endocytic pathway. Comparison of overexpression and siRNA phenotypes suggests that the roles of these proteins in MVB formation may be more specifically addressed using RNA interference and that both LIP5 and CHMP5 function in MVB sorting, whereas only LIP5 is required for HIV release.
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ABSTRACT: The late Nobel Laureate Sir Peter Medawar once memorably described viruses as 'bad news wrapped in protein'. Virus assembly in HIV is a remarkably well coordinated process in which the virus achieves extracellular budding using primarily intracellular budding machinery and also the unusual phenomenon of export from the cell of an RNA. Recruitment of the ESCRT system by HIV is one of the best documented examples of the comprehensive way in which a virus hijacks a normal cellular process. This review is a summary of our current understanding of the budding process of HIV, from genomic RNA capture through budding and on to viral maturation, but centering on the proteins of the ESCRT pathway and highlighting some recent advances in our understanding of the cellular components involved and the complex interplay between the Gag protein and the genomic RNA.Retrovirology 01/2013; 10(1):5. · 5.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interactions of the CHMP protein carboxyl terminal tails with effector proteins play important roles in retroviral budding, cytokinesis, and multivesicular body biogenesis. Here we demonstrate that hydrophobic residues at the CHMP4B C-terminal amphipathic α helix bind a concave surface of Brox, a mammalian paralog of Alix. Unexpectedly, CHMP5 was also found to bind Brox and specifically recruit endogenous Brox to detergent-resistant membrane fractions through its C-terminal 20 residues. Instead of an α helix, the CHMP5 C-terminal tail adopts a tandem β-hairpin structure that binds Brox at the same site as CHMP4B. Additional Brox:CHMP5 interface is furnished by a unique CHMP5 hydrophobic pocket engaging the Brox residue Y348 that is not conserved among the Bro1 domains. Our studies thus unveil a β-hairpin conformation of the CHMP5 protein C-terminal tail, and provide insights into the overlapping but distinct binding profiles of ESCRT-III and the Bro1 domain proteins.Structure 04/2012; 20(5):887-98. · 5.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over-expressed CHMP5 was found to act as oncogene that probably participated in leukemogenesis. In this study, we constructed the CHMP5 single chain variable fragment antibody (CHMP5-scFv) retrovirus and studied the changes of programmed cell death (PCD) of AML leukemic cells after infection by the retrovirus. The anti-CHMP5 KC14 hybridoma cell line was constructed to generate monoclonal antibody of CHMP5. The protein expression of CHMP5 was studied using immunofluorescence analysis. pMIG-CHMP5 scFv antibody expressible retroviral vector was constructed to prepare CHMP5-scFv retrovirus. AML leukemic U937 cells were infected with the retrovirus, and programmed cell death was studied using confocal microscope, FCM and Western blot. We obtained a monoclonal antibody of CHMP5, and found the expression of CHMP5 was up-regulated in the leukemic cells. After U937 cells were infected with CHMP5-scFv retrovirus, CHMP5 protein was neutralized. Moreover, the infection resulted in a significant increase in apoptosis and necrosis of U937 cells. In U937 cells infected with CHMP5-scFv retrovirus, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-mediated caspase-independent necrotic PCD was activated, but autophagic programmed cell death was not observed. Neither the intrinsic nor extrinsic apoptotic PCD pathway was activated. The granzyme B/perforin-mediated caspase-dependent apoptotic PCD pathway was not activated. CHMP5-scFv retrovirus can neutralize the abnormally high levels of the CHMP5 protein in the cytosol of AML leukemic U937 cells, thereby inducing the programmed cell death of the leukemic cells via AIF-mediated caspase-independent necrosis and apoptosis.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 05/2012; 33(6):809-16. · 2.35 Impact Factor