Identification of C7orf11 (TTDN1) Gene Mutations and Genetic Heterogeneity in Nonphotosensitive Trichothiodystrophy

Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.93). 04/2005; 76(3):510-6. DOI: 10.1086/428141
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have identified C7orf11, which localizes to the nucleus and is expressed in fetal hair follicles, as the first disease gene for nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy (TTD). C7orf11 maps to chromosome 7p14, and the disease locus has been designated "TTDN1" (TTD nonphotosensitive 1). Mutations were found in patients with Amish brittle-hair syndrome and in other nonphotosensititive TTD cases with mental retardation and decreased fertility but not in patients with Sabinas syndrome or Pollitt syndrome. Therefore, genetic heterogeneity in nonphotosensitive TTD is a feature similar to that observed in photosensitive TTD, which is caused by mutations in transcription factor II H (TFIIH) subunit genes. Comparative immunofluorescence analysis, however, suggests that C7orf11 does not influence TFIIH directly. Given the absence of cutaneous photosensitivity in the patients with C7orf11 mutations, together with the protein's nuclear localization, C7orf11 may be involved in transcription but not DNA repair.

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Available from: Jacques S Beckmann, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "Mutations in the TTDN1 gene are associated with the nonphotosensitive form of TTD [13] [14]. However, the majority of non-photosensitive TTD patients (approximately 80%) has not yet been linked with any causative gene. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a highly versatile DNA repair process which is able to remove a broad spectrum of structurally unrelated DNA helix-destabilizing lesions. The multi-subunit transcription/repair factor IIH (TFIIH) is an important decision maker in NER, by opening the DNA double helix after the initial damage recognition and subsequently verifying the lesion. Inherited mutations in TFIIH subunits are associated with NER-deficiency and a perplexing clinical heterogeneity, ranging from cancer-prone Xeroderma pigmentosum to the progeroid diseases Cockayne syndrome and Trichothiodystrophy (TTD). Three different TFIIH coding genes are implicated in TTD: XPD, XPB and TTDA. The latter gene encodes for a small (71 amino-acid) subunit and appeared important for the stabilization of the entire TFIIH complex. Based on analyzing TTD group A patient derived cells it was initially thought that TTDA has only a NER-stimulating role. In this review we summarize recent data showing that full disruption of TTDA expression in a knock-out mouse-model completely inactivates NER. Surprisingly, next to being essential for NER, TTDA appeared also required for embryonic development, indicative for the big impact this small protein has on basal biological processes.
    Experimental Cell Research 07/2014; 329(1). DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.07.008 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    • "On the other hand, transcription defects might lead to the rest of TTD-related neuroectodermal abnormalities.[10] Recently, TTDN1 mutations (chromosome 7p14) have been found in up to 10% of non-photosensitive cases.[711] Some investigators have suggested a third genetic group that comprises some non-photosensitive patients in which this mutation was excluded. "
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    ABSTRACT: Trichothiodistrophy (TTD) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is characterized by a specific congenital hair shaft dysplasia caused by deficiency of sulfur associated with a wide spectrum of multisystem abnormalities. In this article, we study clinical, microscopic, and ultrastructural findings of 20 patients with TTD with the aim to add further insights regarding to this rare condition. Additionally, analyses of our results are compared with those extracted from the literature in order to enhance its comprehensibility. TWENTY CASES OF TTD WERE INCLUDED: 7 from Mexico and 14 from Spain. Clinical, microscopic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies and X-ray microanalysis (XrMa) were carried out in all of them. Genetic studies were performed in all seven Mexican cases. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and xeroderma pigmentosum/TTD-complex were excluded. Cuticular changes and longitudinal crests of the hair shaft were demonstrated. These crests were irregular, disorganized, following the hair longest axis. Hair shaft sulfur deficiency was disposed discontinuously and intermittently rather than uniformly. This severe decrease of sulfur contents was located close to the trichoschisis areas. Only five patients did not show related disturbances. Micro-dolichocephaly was observed in five cases and represented the most frequent facial dysmorphism found. It is also remarkable that all patients with urologic malformations also combined diverse neurologic disorders. Moreover, three Mexican sisters demonstrated the coexistence of scarce pubic vellus hair, developmental delay, onychodystrophy, and maxillar/mandibullar hypoplasia. TTD phenotype has greatly varied from very subtle forms to severe alterations such as neurologic abnormalities, blindness, lamellar ichthyosis and gonadal malformations. Herein, a multisystem study should be performed mandatorily in patients diagnosed with TTD.
    International Journal of Trichology 07/2012; 4(3):158-63. DOI:10.4103/0974-7753.100075
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    • "There have been numerous medical genetics studies on the OOA. For several decades, the medical genetics studies focused on monogenic diseases such as brittle hair disease [1,2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Because they are a closed founder population, the Old Order Amish (OOA) of Lancaster County have been the subject of many medical genetics studies. We constructed four versions of Anabaptist Genealogy Database (AGDB) using three sources of genealogies and multiple updates. In addition, we developed PedHunter, a suite of query software that can solve pedigree-related problems automatically and systematically. We report on how we have used new features in PedHunter to quantify the number and expected genetic contribution of founders to the OOA. The queries and utility of PedHunter programs are illustrated by examples using AGDB in this paper. For example, we calculated the number of founders expected to be contributing genetic material to the present-day living OOA and estimated the mean relative founder representation for each founder. New features in PedHunter also include pedigree trimming and pedigree renumbering, which should prove useful for studying large pedigrees. With PedHunter version 2.0 querying AGDB version 4.0, we identified 34,160 presumed living OOA individuals and connected them into a 14-generation pedigree descending from 554 founders (332 females and 222 males) after trimming. From the analysis of cumulative mean relative founder representation, 128 founders (78 females and 50 males) accounted for over 95% of the mean relative founder contribution among living OOA descendants. The OOA are a closed founder population in which a modest number of founders account for the genetic variation present in the current OOA population. Improvements to the PedHunter software will be useful in future studies of both the OOA and other populations with large and computerized genealogies.
    BMC Medical Genetics 05/2010; 11(1):68. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-11-68 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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