Thermal stability and structure of cancellous bone mineral from the femoral head of patients with osteoarthritis or osteoporosis

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (Impact Factor: 10.38). 03/2005; 64(2):222-5. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2004.021329
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Cancellous bone from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) has been reported to be undermineralised and that from patients with osteoporosis (OP) is more liable to fracture. Changes in the mineral component might be implicated in these processes.
To investigate the thermal stability and the mineral structure of cancellous bone from femoral heads of patients with either OA or OP.
Powdered bone was prepared from femoral heads of patients with either OA or OP and a control group. Composition and thermal stability were determined using a thermogravimetric analyser coupled to a mass spectrometer. Unit cell dimensions and the crystallite size of the mineral were measured using x ray diffraction.
Thermal stability of the bone matrix, or of the mineral phase alone, was little altered by disease, though OA bone contained less mineral than OP or control bone. In all three groups, x ray diffraction showed that the mineral unit cell dimensions and crystallite sizes were the same. The mean carbonate content in the mineral from all three groups was between 7.2 and 7.6% and is suggested to be located in both the A site (that is, substituting for hydroxyl groups), and the B site (that is, substituting for phosphate groups).
These results confirm that there is a lower mass fraction of mineral in OA bone, and indicate that the nature of the mineral is not a factor in either disease process.

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Available from: Richard Aspden, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Raman spectra were recorded longitudinally during treatment together with the gravimetric measurement of water loss. Thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis of bone by others has indicated that the adsorbed (i.e., bound) water was mostly removed at around 100 °C whereas so-called more tightly structural water is lost only after the decomposition of the organic matrix in temperature range of 200–600 °C (around 220 °C peaking at 340 °C) [23] [24]. Therefore, the oven drying at 40 °C employed in this study is expected to remove the unbound water and has minimal effect on the bound water compartment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix bound water is a correlate of bone's fracture resistance and assessment of bound water is emerging as a novel measure of bone's mechanical integrity. Raman spectroscopy is one of the few nondestructive modalities to assess the hydration status in bone; however, it has not been used to study the OH-band in bone. A sequential dehydration protocol was developed to replace unbound (heat drying) and bound (ethanol or deuterium) water in bone. Raman spectra were collected serially to track the OH-band during dehydration. Spectra of synthetic hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone and bulk water were collected to identify mineral and collagen contributions to the OH-band. Band assignments were supported by computational simulations of the molecular vibrations of Gly-Pro-Hyp amino acid sequence. Experimentally and theoretically obtained spectra were interpreted for band-assignments. Water loss was measured gravimetrically and correlated to Raman intensities. Four peaks were identified to be sensitive to dehydration: 3220 cm−1 (water), 3325 cm (N\H and water),3453 cm−1 (hydroxyproline and water), and 3584 cm−1 (mineral and water). These peaks were differentially sensitive to deuterium treatment such that some water peaks were replaced with deuterium oxide faster than the rest. Specifically, the peaks at 3325 and 3584 cm−1 were more tightly bound to the matrix than the remaining bands. Comparison of dehydration in mineralized and demineralized bone revealed a volume of water that may be locked in the matrix by mineral crystals. The OH-range of bone was dominated by collagen and the water since the spectral profile of dehydrated demineralized bone was similar to that of the mineralized bone. Furthermore, water associates to bone mainly by collagen as findings of experimentally and theoretically spectra. The current work is among the first thorough analysis of the Raman OH stretch band in bone and such spectral information may be used to understand the involvement of water in the fragility of aging and in diseased bone.
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    • "These results suggest that IGF-1 signaling could be altered in these cells [6]. The increased remodeling in OA bone could possibly account for the observation of hypomineralization of the subchondral bone tissues in established OA [9-11]. Not only the bone matrix is altered in OA but recent studies have demonstrated that a putative factor(s) produced by OA subchondral bone cells can influence cartilage metabolism [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a key factor in bone homeostasis and could be involved in bone tissue sclerosis as observed in osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we compare the key signaling pathways triggered in response to IGF-1 stimulation between normal and OA osteoblasts (Obs). Primary Obs were prepared from the subchondral bone of tibial plateaus of OA patients undergoing knee replacement or from normal individuals at autopsy. Phenotypic characterization of Obs was evaluated with alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin release. The effect of IGF-1 on cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase and collagen synthesis was evaluated in the presence or not of 50 ng/ml IGF-1, whereas signaling was studied with proteins separated by SDS-PAGE before western blot analysis. We also used immunoprecipitation followed by western blot analysis to detect interactions between key IGF-1 signaling elements. IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), Shc, Grb2, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) levels were similar in normal and OA Obs in the presence or absence of IGF-1. After IGF-1 stimulation, the phosphorylation of IGF-1R in normal and OA Obs was similar; however, the phosphorylation of IRS-1 was reduced in OA Ob. In addition, the PI3K pathway was activated similarly in normal and OA Obs while that for p42/44 MAPK was higher in OA Obs compared to normal. p42/44 MAPK can be triggered via an IRS-1/Syp or Grb2/Shc interaction. Interestingly, Syp was poorly phosphorylated under basal conditions in normal Obs and was rapidly phosphorylated upon IGF-1 stimulation, yet Syp showed a poor interaction with IRS-1. In contrast, Syp was highly phosphorylated in OA Obs and its interaction with IRS-1 was very strong initially, yet rapidly dropped with IGF-1 treatments. The interaction of Grb2 with IRS-1 progressively increased in response to IGF-1 in OA Obs whereas this was absent in normal Ob. IGF-1 stimulation altered alkaline phosphatase in Ob, an effect reduced in the presence of PD98059, an inhibitor of p42/44 MAPK signaling, whereas neither IGF-1 nor PD98059 had any significant effect on collagen synthesis. In contrast, cell proliferation was higher in OA Obs compared to normal under basal conditions, and IGF-1 stimulated more cell proliferation in OA Obs than in normal Ob, an effect totally dependent on p42/44 MAPK activiy. The altered response of OA Obs to IGF-1 may be due to abnormal IGF-1 signaling in these cells. This is mostly linked with abnormal IRS-1/Syp and IRS-1/Grb2 interaction in these cells.
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