Thermal stability and structure of cancellous bone mineral from the femoral head of patients with osteoarthritis or osteoporosis.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (Impact Factor: 9.27). 03/2005; 64(2):222-5. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2004.021329
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cancellous bone from patients with osteoarthritis (OA) has been reported to be undermineralised and that from patients with osteoporosis (OP) is more liable to fracture. Changes in the mineral component might be implicated in these processes.
To investigate the thermal stability and the mineral structure of cancellous bone from femoral heads of patients with either OA or OP.
Powdered bone was prepared from femoral heads of patients with either OA or OP and a control group. Composition and thermal stability were determined using a thermogravimetric analyser coupled to a mass spectrometer. Unit cell dimensions and the crystallite size of the mineral were measured using x ray diffraction.
Thermal stability of the bone matrix, or of the mineral phase alone, was little altered by disease, though OA bone contained less mineral than OP or control bone. In all three groups, x ray diffraction showed that the mineral unit cell dimensions and crystallite sizes were the same. The mean carbonate content in the mineral from all three groups was between 7.2 and 7.6% and is suggested to be located in both the A site (that is, substituting for hydroxyl groups), and the B site (that is, substituting for phosphate groups).
These results confirm that there is a lower mass fraction of mineral in OA bone, and indicate that the nature of the mineral is not a factor in either disease process.

Download full-text


Available from: Richard Aspden, Jun 23, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Matrix bound water is a correlate of bone's fracture resistance and assessment of bound water is emerging as a novel measure of bone's mechanical integrity. Raman spectroscopy is one of the few nondestructive modalities to assess the hydration status in bone; however, it has not been used to study the OH-band in bone. A sequential dehydration protocol was developed to replace unbound (heat drying) and bound (ethanol or deuterium) water in bone. Raman spectra were collected serially to track the OH-band during dehydration. Spectra of synthetic hydroxyapatite, demineralized bone and bulk water were collected to identify mineral and collagen contributions to the OH-band. Band assignments were supported by computational simulations of the molecular vibrations of Gly-Pro-Hyp amino acid sequence. Experimentally and theoretically obtained spectra were interpreted for band-assignments. Water loss was measured gravimetrically and correlated to Raman intensities. Four peaks were identified to be sensitive to dehydration: 3220 cm−1 (water), 3325 cm (N\H and water),3453 cm−1 (hydroxyproline and water), and 3584 cm−1 (mineral and water). These peaks were differentially sensitive to deuterium treatment such that some water peaks were replaced with deuterium oxide faster than the rest. Specifically, the peaks at 3325 and 3584 cm−1 were more tightly bound to the matrix than the remaining bands. Comparison of dehydration in mineralized and demineralized bone revealed a volume of water that may be locked in the matrix by mineral crystals. The OH-range of bone was dominated by collagen and the water since the spectral profile of dehydrated demineralized bone was similar to that of the mineralized bone. Furthermore, water associates to bone mainly by collagen as findings of experimentally and theoretically spectra. The current work is among the first thorough analysis of the Raman OH stretch band in bone and such spectral information may be used to understand the involvement of water in the fragility of aging and in diseased bone.
    Bone 07/2014; 67. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2014.07.021 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Degeneration of cartilage will change load distribution, affecting bone remodeling progress and trabecular structure and strength. However, in human primary osteoporosis, whether cartilage lesions would also affect properties beneath trabecular bone remains unknown. In this study, we explored the differences in local trabecular properties between osteoporosis patients with and without cartilage lesions. Methods Eighteen pairs of femoral heads with and without cartilage lesions in a weight-bearing area were collected from senile femoral neck fracture patients. The Mankin score and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were used to evaluate the severity of the cartilage lesions. Micro-CT and compression tests were used to obtain structural and mechanical characteristics of each trabecular column. Multivariate linear regression was performed to evaluate the association between mechanical parameters and the degree of cartilage lesion. Results In osteoporosis patients with cartilage lesions, the bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) of the trabecular column were significantly higher than that of osteoporotic control patients (all P < 0.05), while the Young’s modulus was lower (P = 0.024). Multivariable linear regression indicated that in both groups, bone mineral density (BMD) significantly correlated with Young’s modulus (all P < 0.05). While in patients with cartilage lesion, GAG content was also correlated with Young’s modulus (standardized coefficient 0.443, P < 0.01). Conclusions Osteoporosis patients with cartilage lesions exhibited a weaker mechanical property of trabeculae. The intimate association of cartilage lesions and impairment of trabecular mechanical properties indicate that cartilage and trabeculae belong to an interdependent functional unit. Previously proposed adaptive mechanisms in osteoarthritis might also be applicable to the progression of osteoporosis.
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 03/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s12891-015-0530-5 · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Comprising *20 % of the volume, water is a key determinant of the mechanical behavior of cortical bone. It essentially exists in two general compartments: within pores and bound to the matrix. The amount of pore water—residing in the vascular-lacunar-canalicular space—primarily reflects intracortical porosity (i.e., open spaces within the matrix largely due to Haversian canals and resorption sites) and as such is inversely proportional to most mechanical properties of bone. Movement of water according to pressure gradients generated during dynamic loading likely confers hydraulic stiffening to the bone as well. Nonetheless, bound water is a primary contributor to the mechanical behavior of bone in that it is responsible for giving collagen the ability to confer ductility or plasticity to bone (i.e., allows deformation to continue once permanent damage begins to form in the matrix) and decreases with age along with fracture resistance. Thus, dehydration by air-drying or by solvents with less hydrogen bonding capacity causes bone to become brittle, but interestingly, it also increases stiffness and strength across the hierarchical levels of organization. Despite the importance of matrix hydration to fracture resistance, little is known about why bound water decreases with age in hydrated human bone. Using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), both bound and pore water concentrations in bone can be measured ex vivo because the proton relaxation times differ between the two water compartments, giving rise to two distinct signals. There are also emerging techniques to measure bound and pore water in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NMR/MRI-derived bound water concentration is positively correlated with both the strength and toughness of hydrated bone and may become a useful clinical marker of fracture risk.
    Calcified Tissue International 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00223-015-9977-5 · 2.75 Impact Factor