Regulation of amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux by protein kinase C beta

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 04/2005; 280(12):10914-9. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M413887200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Evidence suggests that protein kinase C (PKC) and intracellular calcium are important for amphetamine-stimulated outward transport of dopamine in rat striatum. In this study, we examined the effect of select PKC isoforms on amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux, focusing on Ca(2+)-dependent forms of PKC. Efflux of endogenous dopamine was measured in superfused rat striatal slices; dopamine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The non-selective classical PKC inhibitor Gö6976 inhibited amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux, whereas rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC delta, had no effect. A highly specific PKC beta inhibitor, LY379196, blocked dopamine efflux that was stimulated by either amphetamine or the PKC activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. None of the PKC inhibitors significantly altered [3H]dopamine uptake. PKC beta(I) and PKC beta(II), but not PKC alpha or PKC gamma, were co-immunoprecipitated from rat striatal membranes with the dopamine transporter (DAT). Conversely, antisera to PKC beta(I) and PKC beta(II) but not PKC alpha or PKCg amma were able to co-immunoprecipitate DAT. Amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux was significantly enhanced in hDAT-HEK 293 cells transfected with PKC beta(II) as compared with hDAT-HEK 293 cells alone, or hDAT-HEK 293 cells transfected with PKCa lpha or PKC beta(I). These results suggest that classical PKC beta(II) is physically associated with DAT and is important in maintaining the amphetamine-stimulated outward transport of dopamine in rat striatum.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The focus of this study was the regulation of the D2-like dopamine autoreceptor (D2 autoreceptor) by protein kinase Cβ, a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family. Together with the dopamine transporter, the D2 autoreceptor regulates the level of extracellular dopamine and thus dopaminergic signaling. PKC regulates neuronal signaling via several mechanisms, including desensitizing autoreceptors to increase the release of several different neurotransmitters. Here, using both PKCβ−/− mice and specific PKCβ inhibitors, we demonstrated that a lack of PKCβ activity enhanced the D2 autoreceptor-stimulated decrease in dopamine release following both chemical and electrical stimulations. Inhibition of PKCβ increased surface localization of D2R in mouse striatal synaptosomes, which could underlie the greater sensitivity to quinpirole following inhibition of PKCβ. PKCβ−/− mice displayed greater sensitivity to the quinpirole-induced suppression of locomotor activity, demonstrating that the regulation of the D2 autoreceptor by PKCβ is physiologically significant. Overall, we have found that PKCβ downregulates the D2 autoreceptor, providing an additional layer of regulation for dopaminergic signaling. We propose that in the absence of PKCβ activity, surface D2 autoreceptor localization and thus D2 autoreceptor signaling is increased, leading to less dopamine in the extracellular space and attenuated dopaminergic signaling.
    Neuropharmacology 10/2014; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.10.012 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; 111(44). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1417294111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The reward is a positive behavioural response to the pleasant stimuli that can be induced by drugs, such as psychostimulants. Furthermore, diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that many people throughout the world suffer from. Methamphetamine (METH), as a psychostimulant, engages the dopaminergic system in the reward circuitry and the synapses of dopaminergic terminals can be modified by insulin. In this study, in order to assess the effect of insulin deficiency on reward, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animals were used as an appropriate model. One hundred and thirty-two adult male rats were divided into nine groups (three non-diabetic and six diabetic groups) to determine the most effective dose of METH (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg ip), and insulin replacement (10 U/kg; ip) during the acquisition period in a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. The diabetes model was induced by a single injection of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). The conditioning score was considered to be the difference in time spent in drug- and saline-paired compartments. The results demonstrated that the most effective doses of METH were 1 and 2 mg/kg in non-diabetic animals. Although the place preference was not shown in non-diabetic animals at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg, this dose significantly induced place preference to METH in STZ-diabetic rats. Additionally, insulin replacement could reverse the METH-induced CPP in diabetic animals. Our findings suggest that the positive effect of insulin deficiency on METH rewarding properties is dependent on insulin level in part, and the replacement of the insulin in diabetic rats as a treatment can improve the rewarding properties of METH.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 11/2014; 128. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2014.11.008 · 2.82 Impact Factor


Available from
Jan 20, 2015