Can animal models help us select specific compounds for cancer prevention trials?
ABSTRACT Animal models provide unparalleled mechanistic insights into cancer development and potential opportunity for cancer prevention. Nevertheless, species differ markedly with regard to dietary exposures, cancer development, drug effects, and toxicity thresholds; therefore, testing in a single animal system may not predict human responses. Although replication of human cancer in animal models remains inexact, more than two decades of research have clearly yielded significant gains, as is evident in agents tested--and in certain cases, approved--for the prevention of epithelial cancers. Research efficiencies achievable through preliminary testing in genetically engineered and carcinogen-induced animal models enable us to probe genetic and signaling pathways that drive normal and neoplastic processes, and thereby figure prominently in decision trees for agent development.
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ABSTRACT: Over the last few decades of biomedical research, animal models of neuromuscular diseases have been widely used for determining pathological mechanisms and for testing new therapeutic strategies. With the emergence of high-throughput proteomics technology, the identification of novel protein factors involved in disease processes has been decisively improved. This review outlines the usefulness of the proteomic profiling of animal disease models for the discovery of new reliable biomarkers, for the optimization of diagnostic procedures and the development of new treatment options for skeletal muscle disorders. Since inbred animal strains show genetically much less interindividual differences as compared to human patients, considerably lower experimental repeats are capable of producing meaningful proteomic data. Thus, animal model proteomics can be conveniently employed for both studying basic mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis and the effects of drugs, genetic modifications or cell-based therapies on disease progression. Based on the results from comparative animal proteomics, a more informed decision on the design of clinical proteomics studies could be reached. Since no one animal model represents a perfect pathobiochemical replica of all of the symptoms seen in complex human disorders, the proteomic screening of novel animal models can also be employed for swift and enhanced protein biochemical phenotyping.PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 09/2007; 1(9):1169 - 1184. DOI:10.1002/prca.200700042 · 2.68 Impact Factor
- Gut 05/2010; 59(5):566-8. DOI:10.1136/gut.2009.200733 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper aims to critically review the potential for a chemoprevention strategy in melanoma, and to discuss new data on candidate chemoprevention agents, as chemoprevention has been suggested as an unexplored approach in melanoma. A strong scientific rationale, established long-term safety of candidate agents, and a systematic step-wise approach to chemoprevention agent development are all critical for melanoma chemoprevention research. Among potential agents, the lipid-lowering drugs, the statins, satisfy these prerequisites. Chemoprevention of cutaneous melanoma can become a valid strategy complementing current prevention approaches, as long as these important prerequisites are taken into consideration.Current Opinion in Oncology 04/2006; 18(2):180-4. DOI:10.1097/01.cco.0000208792.22442.d2 · 3.76 Impact Factor