Can animal models help us select specific compounds for cancer prevention trials?
ABSTRACT Animal models provide unparalleled mechanistic insights into cancer development and potential opportunity for cancer prevention. Nevertheless, species differ markedly with regard to dietary exposures, cancer development, drug effects, and toxicity thresholds; therefore, testing in a single animal system may not predict human responses. Although replication of human cancer in animal models remains inexact, more than two decades of research have clearly yielded significant gains, as is evident in agents tested--and in certain cases, approved--for the prevention of epithelial cancers. Research efficiencies achievable through preliminary testing in genetically engineered and carcinogen-induced animal models enable us to probe genetic and signaling pathways that drive normal and neoplastic processes, and thereby figure prominently in decision trees for agent development.
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ABSTRACT: Metastatic bone disease caused by renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs frequently. Very little is currently known about the mechanism of preferential metastasis of RCC to bone. We hypothesize that RCCs that develop bone metastases have the capacity to facilitate their colonization in bone. To examine this hypothesis, we established bone-seeking (ACHN-BO) clones of the human RCC cell line ACHN by repeated four passages in nude mice and in vitro of metastatic cells obtained from bone. These clones were examined for distinguishing biological characteristics and compared with the ACHN parental cells (ACHN-P) in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that the ACHN-BO cell line could be successfully obtained by in vivo selection through the lateral tail vein. This approach results in the development of multiple osteolytic lesions in the distal femora and proximal tibiae within four weeks after inoculation, with a success rate of 85-100% and no additional comorbidity. ACHN-P cells developed metastases in lung, bone, brain, ovary and adrenal glands. Conversely, ACHN-BO cells exclusively metastasized to bones with larger osteolytic lesions. Compared with the ACHN-P cell line, the proliferation ability in ACHN-BO6 was increased by 9.68 and 6.42%, respectively (P<0.05), while the apoptotic ratio decreased significantly (P<0.05) and cells were blocked in the S phase with suppressed migration and invasion capacities. The ACHN-BO₆ cell line produced greater amounts of the pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and TGF-β than ACHN-P. Our data suggest that these phenotypic changes allow RCC cells to promote osteoclastic bone resorption, survive and proliferate in bone, which consequently leads to the establishment of bone metastases. This model provides a reliable reproduction of the clinical situation and, therefore, is suitable for designing and evaluating more effective treatments for RCC bone metastasis.Oncology Reports 11/2011; 27(4):1104-10. DOI:10.3892/or.2011.1572 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the last few decades of biomedical research, animal models of neuromuscular diseases have been widely used for determining pathological mechanisms and for testing new therapeutic strategies. With the emergence of high-throughput proteomics technology, the identification of novel protein factors involved in disease processes has been decisively improved. This review outlines the usefulness of the proteomic profiling of animal disease models for the discovery of new reliable biomarkers, for the optimization of diagnostic procedures and the development of new treatment options for skeletal muscle disorders. Since inbred animal strains show genetically much less interindividual differences as compared to human patients, considerably lower experimental repeats are capable of producing meaningful proteomic data. Thus, animal model proteomics can be conveniently employed for both studying basic mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis and the effects of drugs, genetic modifications or cell-based therapies on disease progression. Based on the results from comparative animal proteomics, a more informed decision on the design of clinical proteomics studies could be reached. Since no one animal model represents a perfect pathobiochemical replica of all of the symptoms seen in complex human disorders, the proteomic screening of novel animal models can also be employed for swift and enhanced protein biochemical phenotyping.PROTEOMICS - CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 09/2007; 1(9):1169 - 1184. DOI:10.1002/prca.200700042 · 2.68 Impact Factor
Article: Models of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma