Antioxidant betalains from cactus pear (Opunda ficus-indica) inhibit endothelial ICAM-1 expression
ABSTRACT It has been suggested that some pigments would have antioxidant properties and that their presence in dietary constituents would contribute to reduce the risk of oxidative stress-correlated diseases. Among others, inflammatory response depends on redox status and may implicate oxidative stress. Vascular endothelial cells are a direct target of oxidative stress in inflammation. We have tested the impact of the free radical scavenger and antioxidant properties of betalains from the prickle pear in an in vitro model of endothelial cells. Here we show the capacity of betalains to protect endothelium from cytokine-induced redox state alteration, through ICAM-1 inhibition.
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ABSTRACT: Colour is an often overlooked sensory character that certainly influences flavour perception. Pigments colouring food are generally unstable and are modified during processing. To maintain or restore product colour uniformity, colouring agents, considered worldwide as food additives, are intentionally added to food products. The natural food additives market has been growing extensively since the last century due to the potential hazards of artificial food additives and the potential benefits of biologically active compounds. In this chapter, a fairly compressed overview of the most important colours of natural origin as well as information about less common or/and promising colouring molecules are provided.Colour additives for foods and beverages, Elsevier edited by M. J. Scotter, 03/2015: chapter Food colour additives of natural origin: pages 3-34; Woodhead Publishing., ISBN: 978-1-78242-011-8
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages come across active prostaglandin (PG) metabolism during inflammation, shunting early production of pro-inflammatory towards anti-inflammatory mediators terminating the process. This work for the first time provides evidence that a phytochemical may modulate the arachidonate (AA) metabolism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, promoting the ultimate formation of anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone 15deoxy-PGJ2. Added 1 h before LPS, indicaxanthin from Opuntia Ficus Indica prevented activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and over-expression of PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1), but up-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS), with final production of the anti-inflammatory cyclopentenone. The effects were positively related with concentration between 50 and 100 µM. Indicaxanthin did not have any effect in the absence of LPS. A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50–100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5–3 h) modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3–12 h) concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5–3 h) concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.07/2014; 2. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2014.07.004
Dataset: Antimicrobial Natural Products