Urinary osteocalcin as a marker of bone metabolism

Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
Clinical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 7.77). 03/2005; 51(3):618-28. DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2004.043901
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Osteocalcin (OC) is produced by osteoblasts during bone formation, and circulating OC has been used in clinical investigations as a marker of bone metabolism. OC is excreted into urine by glomerular filtration and can be found in urine as midmolecule fragments.
We developed and evaluated three immunoassays (U-MidOC, U-LongOC, and U-TotalOC) for the detection of various molecular forms of urine OC (U-OC). We evaluated the association of U-OC with other markers of bone turnover and with bone mass in 1044 elderly women and studied seasonal and circadian variation of U-OC.
U-OC correlated with other bone turnover markers [Spearman correlation (r), 0.30-0.57; P <0.0001], demonstrating the association between U-OC and skeletal metabolism. There was also a significant association between bone metabolism assessed by U-OC quartiles and bone mass assessed by total body bone mineral content (P <0.0001). The seasonal effects appeared to be rather small, but we observed a significant circadian rhythm similar to the one reported for serum OC with high values in the morning and low values in the afternoon.
The three immunoassays had unique specificities toward different naturally occurring U-OC fragments. U-OC concentrations measured with any of these assays correlated with bone turnover rates assessed by conventional serum markers of bone metabolism. The measurement of OC in urine samples could be used as an index of bone turnover in monitoring bone metabolism.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long periods of inactivity in most mammals lead to significant bone loss that may not be completely recovered during an individual’s lifetime regardless of future activity. Extended bouts of inactivity are the norm for hibernating mammals. It remains largely unknown, however, how these animals avoid adversely affecting bone, their quality, and ultimately survival given the challenges posed to their skeletons by inactivity and nutritional deprivation during hibernation. The primary goal of this project was to identify the physiological mechanisms regulating bone density, area and strength during extended periods of annual inactivity in hibernating woodchucks (Marmota monax). The overall hypothesis that bone integrity is unaffected by several months of inactivity during hibernation in woodchucks was tested across multiple levels of biological function. To gain a holistic assessment of seasonal bone integrity, the locomotor behavior and estimated stresses acting on woodchuck bones were investigated in conjunction with computed tomography scans and three-point bending tests to determine bone density, geometry, and mechanical properties of the long bones throughout the year. In addition, serum protein expression was examined to ascertain bone resorption and formation processes indicative of overall annual skeletal health. It was determined that woodchucks avoid significant changes in gait preference, but experience a decrease in bending stresses acting on distal limb bones following hibernation. Computed tomography scans indicated that bone mass, distribution, and trabecular structure are maintained in these animals throughout the year. Surprisingly, cortical density increased significantly posthibernation. Furthermore, three-point bending tests revealed that although less stiff, woodchuck femora were just as tough during the hibernation season, unlike brittle bones associated with osteoporosis. Finally, bone serum markers suggested a net maintenance of bone resorption and formation processes throughout the year. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that woodchucks do not lose bone to the extent that would be expected from a non-hibernating animal during four months of inactivity. It is concluded that bone integrity is not adversely affected by hibernation in woodchucks. The results of this work have several broader implications toward skeletal biology research, the evolution of skeletal plasticity, and biomedical applications to osteoporosis prevention and treatment.
    05/2013, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Vinyard C. J.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteocalcin has been shown to enhance testosterone production in men. In the present study, we investigated the effects of osteocalcin on testosterone and on induction of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Osteocalcin injection stimulated growth, which could be inhibited by castration. In addition, osteocalcin induced testosterone secretion in testes both in vivo and in vitro. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, we showed that growth hormone expression was significantly increased in the pituitary after osteocalcin injection (p<0.05). Growth hormone expression in CLU401 mouse pituitary cells was also significantly stimulated (p<0.05) by osteocalcin-induced MA-10 cells. Osteocalcin injection also promoted hepatic expression of growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (p<0.05), as demonstrated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Similarly, osteocalcin-induced MA-10 cells promoted growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in NCTC1469 cells. These results suggest that the growth-stimulating activities of osteocalcin are mediated by testicular testosterone secretion, and thus provide valuable information regarding the regulatory effects of osteocalcin expression on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis via reproductive activities.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 04/2014; 46(11). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1371869 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Previous studies have shown galanin (GAL) injections onto mouse calvaria increased bone thickness and osteoblast number. This study investigated the effects of the GAL receptor agonist galnon on bone loss using the ovariectomised (OVX) rat model. Methods: OVX rats were treated with either vehicle or galnon for 6 weeks via mini-osmotic pumps. Plasma osteocalcin concentrations, osseous cell gene expression, morphological and biomechanical properties of the skeleton were compared between the two groups. Results: Treatment with galnon increased RANKL:OPG gene ratio (p<0.001) plus expression of TNF-α (p<0.05) and cathepsin K (p<0.05). μCT analyses revealed galnon-treated OVX animals had reduced trabecular and cortical morphology compared to control animals. Biomechanically, galnon OVX animals required similar peak force to failure to that of control OVX animals although galnon treatment did enhance the mechanical properties of Young's modulus and ultimate tensile stress. Conclusions: Our research suggests that galnon, a GAL receptor agonist, may enhance osteoclastic bone resorption in OVX rats. Although galnon reduced bone volume, biomechanical testing revealed that bone of galnon-treated animals was mechanically superior per unit area. Taken together, galnon simultaneously improves the intrinsic quality of cortical bone whilst stimulating osteoclastic activity in the OVX rat model.
    Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 06/2014; 14(2):162-172. · 2.40 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 21, 2014

Kaisa Ivaska