Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT Exogenous melatonin reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep, and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age. However, existing studies on the soporific efficacy of melatonin have been highly heterogeneous in regard to inclusion and exclusion criteria, measures to evaluate insomnia, doses of the medication, and routes of administration. We reviewed and analyzed (by meta-analysis) available information on effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep. A MEDLINE search (1980 to December 2003) provided English-language articles, supplemented by personal files maintained by the authors. The analysis used information derived from 17 different studies (involving 284 subjects) that satisfied inclusion criteria. Sleep onset latency, total sleep duration, and sleep efficiency were selected as the outcome measures. The study effect size was taken to be the difference between the response on placebo and the mean response on melatonin for each outcome measured. Melatonin treatment significantly reduced sleep onset latency by 4.0 min (95% CI 2.5, 5.4); increased sleep efficiency by 2.2% (95% CI 0.2, 4.2), and increased total sleep duration by 12.8 min (95% CI 2.9, 22.8). Since 15 of the 17 studies enrolled healthy subjects or people with no relevant medical condition other than insomnia, the analysis was also done including only these 15 studies. The sleep onset results were changed to 3.9 min (95% CI (2.5, 5.4)); sleep efficiency increased to 3.1% (95% CI (0.7, 5.5)); sleep duration increased to 13.7 min (95% CI (3.1, 24.3)).
- SourceAvailable from: Domenico De BerardisMelatonin: Therapeutic value and Neuroprotection, 1 edited by Venkataramanujam Srinivasan, Gabriella Gobbi, Samuel D Shillcutt, Sibel Suzen, 10/2014: chapter 23: pages 289-308; CRC press., ISBN: 9781482220094
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ABSTRACT: Background. Sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction are common in patients with breast cancer. Disturbed sleep leads to poor cognitive performance and exogenous melatonin may improve sleep and attenuate cognitive dysfunction. We hypothesized that melatonin would improve sleep and cognitive function after surgery. Methods. This study reports secondary endpoints from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women, 30-75 years, were randomized to 6mg oral melatonin/placebo for 3 months. We assessed postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) with a neuropsychological test battery, sleep with a diary, and sleep quality with VAS. Results. 54 patients were randomized to melatonin (n = 28) or placebo (n = 26); 11 withdrew (10 placebo, 1 melatonin, P = 0.002). The incidence of POCD was 0% (0/20) [95% CI 0.0%; 16.8%] in the placebo group and 0% (0/26) [95% CI 0.0%; 13.2%] in the melatonin group 2 weeks postoperatively (P = 1.00) and 6.3% (1/16) [95% CI 0.0%; 30.2%] in the placebo group and 0% (0/26) [95% CI 0.0%; 13.2%] in the melatonin group 12 weeks postoperatively (P = 0.38). Sleep efficiency was significantly greater in the melatonin group; mean difference was 4.28% [95% CI 0.57; 7.82] (P = 0.02). The total sleep period was significantly longer in the melatonin group; mean difference was 37.0 min [95% CI 3.6; 69.7] (P = 0.03). Conclusion. Melatonin increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time but did not affect cognitive function. The dropout rate was significantly lower in the melatonin group. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01355523.International journal of breast cancer. 01/2014; 2014:416531.
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ABSTRACT: Insomnia affects one-third of the adult population. Ten percent of adults surveyed in America consider it a serious problem. Chronic insomnia is associated with poor quality of life and the potential for various psychiatric and medical conditions, notably depression and cardiovascular disease. Since most patients with insomnia are unlikely to disclose obvious sleeping difficulties, the first step in diagnosing and managing patients is having a high index of suspicion in patients with specific complaints, comorbidities, and risk factors. This is followed by a complete evaluation of the patient's medical and physical history to determine if the insomnia is primary or comorbid with another disease. The management of insomnia should consider the extent of impairment associated with the disorder, as well as duration, causes, and comorbidities. In some cases, referral to a specialist is warranted. Recently, there have been new definitions of insomnia proposed; elucidation of the role of orexin-mediated hyperarousal brain neural pathway in the sleep-wake cycle; and new drugs available that target this system. Thus, a review and update for today's primary care physician is warranted.Postgraduate Medicine 09/2014; 126(5):82-101. · 1.54 Impact Factor