Expression of tumor-associated trypsinogens (TAT-1 and TAT-2) in prostate cancer
ABSTRACT Trypsinogens are pancreatic serine proteinases and expressed in several cancers as tumor-associated trypsinogens (TAT). Trypsin mediates activation of pro-uPA and pro-MMPs, thus promoting angiogenesis and tumor invasion. Recently, we described expression of TAT in the human male genital tract and now we studied TAT in relation to PSA in PCa.
TAT expression was studied by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, RT-PCR, DNA-sequencing and IFMA. LNCaP cells were used to study secretion of TAT and PSA after androgen stimulation.
Immunoreactive TAT was localized in all prostatic tumors (n = 109), lymph node (n = 16), and bone metastases (n = 17). Immunostaining intensity increased with higher Gleason's grade, whereas PSA immunostaining decreased significantly. PSA and TAT were not identically distributed in benign and malignant cells. Androgen stimulation of LNCaP cells decreased secretion of TAT and increased that of PSA. TAT mRNA was demonstrated in tissue sections and identified as TAT-1 and -2 by RT-PCR and DNA-sequencing.
Expression of TAT is better preserved than PSA in high-grade PCa. Expression of TAT and PSA is regulated by different mechanisms as demonstrated in tissue sections and in vitro. Locally produced TAT may act in a paracrine mode to promote angiogenesis and tumor invasion in PCa by both activating and degrading of other proteinases. Further studies on the role of TAT in invasive PCa and on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of TAT expression are warranted.
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ABSTRACT: ETS gene fusions have been characterized in a majority of prostate cancers; however, the key molecular alterations in ETS-negative cancers are unclear. Here we used an outlier meta-analysis (meta-COPA) to identify SPINK1 outlier expression exclusively in a subset of ETS rearrangement-negative cancers ( approximately 10% of total cases). We validated the mutual exclusivity of SPINK1 expression and ETS fusion status, demonstrated that SPINK1 outlier expression can be detected noninvasively in urine, and observed that SPINK1 outlier expression is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence after resection. We identified the aggressive 22RV1 cell line as a SPINK1 outlier expression model and demonstrate that SPINK1 knockdown in 22RV1 attenuates invasion, suggesting a functional role in ETS rearrangement-negative prostate cancers.Cancer cell 07/2008; 13(6):519-28. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2008.04.016 · 23.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trypsinogens and PSTI/TATI/SPINK1 are expressed, usually together, at high levels by the pancreas but also by many other normal and malignant tissues. The present review describes studies on the expression and putative functions of trypsinogens and PSTI/TATI/SPINK1 in the human body. The clinical aspects are discussed, including the correlations between expression of trypsinogens and PSTI/TATI/SPINK1 in tissues, serum, and urine of patients with pancreatitis or cancer and clinicopathological characteristics, i.e., the roles of trypsinogens and PSTI/TATI/SPINK1 in spontaneous and hereditary pancreatitis, tumor progression, and prognosis.Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 02/2006; 43(2):103-42. DOI:10.1080/10408360500523852 · 7.00 Impact Factor