Virtual reality simulation for the operating room: proficiency-based training as a paradigm shift in surgical skills training.
ABSTRACT To inform surgeons about the practical issues to be considered for successful integration of virtual reality simulation into a surgical training program. The learning and practice of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) makes unique demands on surgical training programs. A decade ago Satava proposed virtual reality (VR) surgical simulation as a solution for this problem. Only recently have robust scientific studies supported that vision
A review of the surgical education, human-factor, and psychology literature to identify important factors which will impinge on the successful integration of VR training into a surgical training program.
VR is more likely to be successful if it is systematically integrated into a well-thought-out education and training program which objectively assesses technical skills improvement proximate to the learning experience. Validated performance metrics should be relevant to the surgical task being trained but in general will require trainees to reach an objectively determined proficiency criterion, based on tightly defined metrics and perform at this level consistently. VR training is more likely to be successful if the training schedule takes place on an interval basis rather than massed into a short period of extensive practice. High-fidelity VR simulations will confer the greatest skills transfer to the in vivo surgical situation, but less expensive VR trainers will also lead to considerably improved skills generalizations.
VR for improved performance of MIS is now a reality. However, VR is only a training tool that must be thoughtfully introduced into a surgical training curriculum for it to successfully improve surgical technical skills.
Article: Selective and control processes.Cognition 10(1-3):53-8. · 3.16 Impact Factor
Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons 12/2002; 87(11):10-1.
Article: Temporally structured replay of awake hippocampal ensemble activity during rapid eye movement sleep.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human dreaming occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. To investigate the structure of neural activity during REM sleep, we simultaneously recorded the activity of multiple neurons in the rat hippocampus during both sleep and awake behavior. We show that temporally sequenced ensemble firing rate patterns reflecting tens of seconds to minutes of behavioral experience are reproduced during REM episodes at an equivalent timescale. Furthermore, within such REM episodes behavior-dependent modulation of the subcortically driven theta rhythm is also reproduced. These results demonstrate that long temporal sequences of patterned multineuronal activity suggestive of episodic memory traces are reactivated during REM sleep. Such reactivation may be important for memory processing and provides a basis for the electrophysiological examination of the content of dream states.Neuron 02/2001; 29(1):145-56. · 14.74 Impact Factor