Targeting fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14 signaling protects from chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT The TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a TNF family member mediating proinflammatory effects by its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14 (Fn14). We studied the role of TWEAK/Fn14 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by protein vaccination with TWEAK and Fn14 and recombinant TWEAK-DNA, respectively. TWEAK-DNA vaccination worsened the clinical course of EAE and increased central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. TWEAK increased the secretion of CCL2 [monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)] by CNS endothelial cells and astrocytes in vitro, suggesting CCL2 as a critical mediator of TWEAKs proinflammatory effects. Vaccination with the extracellular domain of TWEAK or with Fn14 resulted in the induction of specific inhibitory antibodies and an amelioration of EAE signs in two different models in rats and mice. Spinal cord inflammatory infiltrates were significantly diminished. Purified IgG from TWEAK- or Fn14-vaccinated rats prevented TWEAK-induced production of CCL2 by endothelial cells. Blocking Fn14 signaling represents a novel approach with potential for the treatment of CNS autoimmunity.
- SourceAvailable from: Andre M Mueller
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family that is induced in a variety of cell types in situations of tissue injury. Fn14 becomes activated by TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a typical member of the TNF ligand family. TWEAK is constitutively expressed by monocytes and some tumor cell lines but also shows cytokine inducible expression in various other cell types. Fn14 activation results in stimulation of signaling pathways culminating in the activation of NFκB transcription factors and various mitogen-activated protein kinases but might also trigger the PI3K/Akt pathway and GTPases of the Rho family. In accordance with its tissue damage-associated expression pattern and its pleiotropic proinflammatory signaling capabilities, the TWEAK-Fn14 system has been implicated in a huge number of pathologies. The use of TWEAK- and Fn14-knockout mice identified the TWEAK-Fn14 system as a crucial player in muscle atrophy, cerebral ischemia, kidney injury, atherosclerosis and infarction as well as in various autoimmune scenarios including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Moreover, there is increasing preclinical evidence that Fn14 targeting is a useful option in tumor therapy. Based on a discussion of the signaling capabilities of TWEAK and Fn14, this review is focused on two major issues. On the one hand on the molecular and cellular basis of the TWEAK/Fn14-related pathological outcomes in the aforementioned diseases and on the other hand on the preclinical experience that have been made so far with TWEAK and Fn14 targeting drugs.British Journal of Pharmacology 08/2013; 170(4). DOI:10.1111/bph.12337 · 5.07 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The TNF superfamily member TWEAK (TNFSF12) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair. TWEAK is initially synthesized as a membrane-anchored protein, but furin cleavage within the stalk region can generate a secreted TWEAK isoform. Both TWEAK isoforms bind to a small cell surface receptor named Fn14 (TNFRSF12A) and this interaction stimulates various cellular responses, including proliferation and migration. Fn14, like other members of the TNF receptor superfamily, is not a ligand-activated protein kinase. Instead, TWEAK:Fn14 engagement promotes Fn14 association with members of the TNFR associated factor family of adapter proteins, which triggers activation of various signaling pathways, including the classical and alternative NF-κB pathways. Numerous studies have revealed that Fn14 gene expression is significantly elevated in injured tissues and in most solid tumor types. Also, sustained Fn14 signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, chronic inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Accordingly, several groups are developing TWEAK- or Fn14-targeted agents for possible therapeutic use in patients. These agents include monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, and immunotoxins. In this article, we provide an overview of some of the TWEAK/Fn14 axis-targeted agents currently in pre-clinical animal studies or in human clinical trials and discuss two other potential approaches to target this intriguing signaling node.Frontiers in Immunology 12/2013; 4:473. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00473