Critchley, al. Activity in the human brain predicting differential heart rate responses to emotional facial expressions. Neuroimage24, 751-762

Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London WC1N 3BG, UK.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 03/2005; 24(3):751-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.10.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The James-Lange theory of emotion proposes that automatically generated bodily reactions not only color subjective emotional experience of stimuli, but also necessitate a mechanism by which these bodily reactions are differentially generated to reflect stimulus quality. To examine this putative mechanism, we simultaneously measured brain activity and heart rate to identify regions where neural activity predicted the magnitude of heart rate responses to emotional facial expressions. Using a forewarned reaction time task, we showed that orienting heart rate acceleration to emotional face stimuli was modulated as a function of the emotion depicted. The magnitude of evoked heart rate increase, both across the stimulus set and within each emotion category, was predicted by level of activity within a matrix of interconnected brain regions, including amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate, and brainstem. We suggest that these regions provide a substrate for translating visual perception of emotional facial expression into differential cardiac responses and thereby represent an interface for selective generation of visceral reactions that contribute to the embodied component of emotional reaction.

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Available from: Pia Rotshtein, Aug 31, 2015
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    • "visual, auditory, proprioceptive and vestibular), as well as efferent copy signals from motor structures, are integrated in the PPC (Andersen et al., 1997). As for the enhanced activity of the insular cortex in the Pe component, we may note that it was reported by several fMRI studies (Menon et al., 2001; Ullsperger and von Cramon, 2001; Mathalon et al., 2003; Critchley et al., 2005a,b; Debener et al., 2005; Matthews et al., 2005; Polli et al., 2005; Ramautar et al., 2006; Klein et al., 2007), while only a recent ERP study (Dhar et al., 2011) was able to localized this area as the Pe generator. However, probably due to a sample smaller than the present one, or to the difficulty to measure the activity of a deep region with the surface EEG, the authors localized the main generator of the Pe in the posterior insula. "
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    ABSTRACT: The event-related potential (ERP) literature described two error-related brain activities: the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) and the error positivity (Pe), peaking immediately after the erroneous response. ERP studies on error processing adopted a response-locked approach, thus, the question about the activities preceding the error is still open. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the activities preceding the false alarms (FA) are different from those occurring in the correct (responded or inhibited) trials. To this aim, we studied a sample of 36 Go/No-go performers, adopting a stimulus-locked segmentation also including the pre-motor brain activities. Present results showed that neither pre-stimulus nor perceptual activities explain why we commit FA. In contrast, we observed condition-related differences in two pre-response components: the fronto-central N2 and the prefrontal positivity (pP), respectively peaking at 250ms and 310ms after the stimulus onset. The N2 amplitude of FA was identical to that recorded in No-go trials, and larger than Hits. Because the new findings challenge the previous interpretations on the N2, a new perspective is discussed. On the other hand, the pP in the FA trials was larger than No-go and smaller than Go, suggesting an erroneous processing at the stimulus-response mapping level: because this stage triggers the response execution, we concluded that the neural processes underlying the pP were mainly responsible for the subsequent error commission. Finally, sLORETA source analyses of the post-error potentials extended previous findings indicating, for the first time in the ERP literature, the right anterior insula as Pe generator. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    NeuroImage 03/2015; 113. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.03.040 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition, some functional neuroimaging studies indicate cerebellar activity when individuals watch pictures of faces with emotional content [56] and while feeling anger, sadness, happiness, and fear [19] [32]. In social cognition, the role of the cerebellum has been observed along with the activation of the hippocampus while processing socially related spaces [43] and along with the activity of the prefrontal cortex, predicts autonomic responses associated with risky social decision-making [15] [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 (SCA2) is a genetic disorder causing cerebellar degeneration that result in motor and cognitive alterations. Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM) analyses have found neurodegenerative patterns associated to SCA2, but they show some discrepancies. Moreover, behavioral deficits related to non-cerebellar functions are scarcely discussed in those reports. In this work we use behavioral and cognitive tests and VBM to identify and confirm cognitive and gray matter alterations in SCA2 patients compared with control subjects. Also, we discuss the cerebellar and non-cerebellar functions affected by this disease. Our results confirmed gray matter reduction in the cerebellar vermis, pons, insular, frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. However, our analysis also found unreported loss of gray matter in the parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally. Motor performance test ratings correlated with total gray and white matter reductions, but executive performance and clinical features such as CAG repetitions and disease progression did not show any correlation. This pattern of cerebellar and non-cerebellar morphological alterations associated with SCA2 has to be considered to fully understand the motor and non-motor deficits that include language production and comprehension and some social skills changes that occur in these patients.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.09.018 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Like all feelings of body states, such as feelings of cold or heat (Craig et al., 2000), hunger or fullness (Del Parigi et al., 2002), feelings of emotion-related physiological states are thought to come most fully into awareness in the anterior insula (AI). Though various cortical and subcortical systems contribute to emotion, mood, and their regulation (e.g., amygdala, hypothalamus , cingulate cortex), the AI is the cortical terminus for the interoceptive maps from which conscious affective experiences are thought to be constructed, such as maps of emotion-related heart-rate changes (Craig, 2002; Critchley et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The anterior insula (AI) maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector) in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector) in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain’s ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural influence and learning.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 09/2014; 8:728. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00728 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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