Linking semantic priming effect in functional MRI and event-related potentials.

Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8601, Japan.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.13). 03/2005; 24(3):624-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.09.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to examine the neural substrates involved in semantic priming using a combined event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potentials (ERP) study. Twelve subjects were instructed to judge whether the presented target word was a real word or a nonword. Under the related condition, target words were preceded by a semantically related prime word. On the other hand, under the unrelated condition, prime words did not have semantic relatedness with the target word. The reaction time for reaching a judgment was longer under the unrelated condition than under the related condition, indicating that the recognition of target words is promoted by semantic priming under the related condition. In the fMRI results, we found reduced activity in the dorsal and ventral left inferior frontal gyrus, the anterior cingulate, and left superior temporal cortex for related versus unrelated conditions (i.e., the repetition suppression effect). ERP analysis revealed that the amplitude of the N400 component was reduced under the related condition compared with the unrelated condition (i.e., the N400 priming effect). Correlation analysis between the BOLD repetition suppression effect and the N400 priming effect decomposed by independent component analysis (ICA) across subjects showed significant correlation in the left superior temporal gyrus. This finding is consistent with the recent MEG data suggesting that the source of N400 is judged to be the bilateral superior temporal lobe. We discussed this finding herein in relation to the modulation of access to the phonological representation caused by semantic priming.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In classical theories of attention, unconscious automatic processes are thought to be independent of higher-level attentional influences. Here, we propose that unconscious processing depends on attentional enhancement of task-congruent processing pathways implemented by a dynamic modulation of the functional communication between brain regions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested our model with a subliminally primed lexical decision task preceded by an induction task preparing either a semantic or a perceptual task set. Subliminal semantic priming was significantly greater after semantic compared to perceptual induction in ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) and inferior frontal cortex, brain areas known to be involved in semantic processing. The functional connectivity pattern of vOT varied depending on the induction task and successfully predicted the magnitude of behavioral and neural priming. Together, these findings support the proposal that dynamic establishment of functional networks by task sets is an important mechanism in the attentional control of unconscious processing. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 06/2014; · 6.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mood is widely assessed in nutrition research, usually with rating scales. A core assumption is that positive mood reinforces ingestion, so it is important to measure mood well. Four relevant theoretical issues are reviewed: (i) the distinction between protracted and transient mood; (ii) the distinction between mood and emotion; (iii) the phenomenology of mood as an unstable tint to consciousness rather than a distinct state of consciousness; (iv) moods can be caused by social and cognitive processes as well as physiological ones. Consequently, mood is difficult to measure and mood rating is easily influenced by non-nutritive aspects of feeding, the psychological, social and physical environment where feeding occurs, and the nature of the rating system employed. Some of the difficulties are illustrated by reviewing experiments looking at the impact of food on mood. The mood-rating systems in common use in nutrition research are then reviewed, the requirements of a better mood-rating system are described, and guidelines are provided for a considered choice of mood-rating system including that assessment should: have two main dimensions; be brief; balance simplicity and comprehensiveness; be easy to use repeatedly. Also mood should be assessed only under conditions where cognitive biases have been considered and controlled.
    Nutrition Research Reviews 12/2014; · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review examines existing cognitive experimental and brain imaging research related to cocaine addiction. In section 1, previous studies that have examined cognitive processes, such as implicit and explicit memory processes in cocaine users are reported. Next, in section 2, brain imaging studies are reported that have used chronic users of cocaine as study participants. In section 3, several conclusions are drawn. They are: (a) in cognitive experimental literature, no study has examined both implicit and explicit memory processes involving cocaine related visual information in the same cocaine user, (b) neural mechanisms underlying implicit and explicit memory processes for cocaine-related visual cues have not been directly investigated in cocaine users in the imaging literature, and (c) none of the previous imaging studies has examined connectivity between the memory system and craving system in the brain of chronic users of cocaine. Finally, future directions in the field of cocaine addiction are suggested.
    Journal of clinical toxicology. 07/2012; 2012(Suppl 7):003.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 20, 2014