Article

The bleaching depth of a 35% hydrogen peroxide based in-office product: A study in vitro

School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom
Journal of Dentistry (Impact Factor: 2.84). 02/2005; 33(1):33-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2004.07.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to quantify the penetration of 35% hydrogen peroxide into enamel and dentine and to relate this to the resultant shade change of the tooth.
The crowns of 24 caries and developmental defect free human maxillary incisors were stained internally with a standardised tea solution. Twelve specimens were power bleached with light activated 35% hydrogen peroxide and 12 placed in water; both exposure times were 30min. Three different shade assessment methods (Vita shade guide [SG], shade vision system [SVS] and a chromometer) were employed prior to, after tea staining and after power bleaching/water treatments. Twelve specimens each from the bleach group and the water control water group were sectioned mesio-distally. An additional 12 specimens from the bleach and the control group were sectioned labio-palatally. The stain area for each specimen was measured using image analysis software.
With tea staining, the mean changes in Vita shade guide units (SGU) ranged from 3.66 to 8.33. With the SVS system changes of 3.66-9 units were seen. Chromometer readings showed that following bleaching the L* values moved in the direction of black (3.8-6.7) and a* and b* values were in the red (0.3) and yellow (1.5) direction, respectively. Samples bleached and sectioned mesio-distally showed stain coverage of 28.6-39.4%, while palatal sections showed stain coverage of 58-72%. Control samples, whether sectioned mesio-distally or labio-palatally, showed staining throughout the dentine (97-100% coverage).
A 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching gel demonstrated bleaching into dentine of uniform depth.

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    • "Nowadays, tooth-whitening systems are based primarily on hydrogen peroxide or one of its precursors, notably carbamide peroxide [2], [3]. They are often used in combination with an activating agent such as a laser or an incoherent light source [4], [5], although the exact mechanism is not yet fully understood [6], [7]. Plasma is the fourth state of matter, aside from solid, liquid, and gas states, which comprises over 99.9% of the universe. "
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    ABSTRACT: We reported in this paper the tooth-whitening effect by a direct-current cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet (PMJ) and saline solution (0.9%). All teeth were randomly divided into three groups, treated for 20 min with an air blow and saline solution, a PMJ and saline solution, and 35% hydrogen peroxide gel, respectively. Compared with the other groups, the teeth treated with the PMJ and saline solution showed the best tooth-whitening effect. The microhardness of the tooth enamel measurement showed no apparent differences among the three groups. A minor enamel surface morphological change was observed via SEM but was considered acceptable. Singlet oxygen (<sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub>) and hydroxyl (*OH) radicals were detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Atomic oxygen (O) was observed in the optical emission spectra of the PMJ. <sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub>, *OH, and O were considered to be the key agents during the tooth-whitening process. This novel method of tooth whitening has the potential to revolutionize the clinical tooth-whitening procedure.
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 12/2010; 38(11-38):3143 - 3151. DOI:10.1109/TPS.2010.2066291 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    • "Nowadays, tooth-whitening systems are based primarily on hydrogen peroxide or one of its precursors, notably carbamide peroxide [2], [3]. They are often used in combination with an activating agent such as a laser or an incoherent light source [4], [5], although the exact mechanism is not yet fully understood [6], [7]. Plasma is the fourth state of matter, aside from solid, liquid, and gas states, which comprises over 99.9% of the universe. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We reported in this paper the tooth-whitening effect by a direct-current cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma micro-jet (PMJ) and saline solution (0.9%). All teeth were randomly divided into three groups, treated for 20 min with an air blow and saline solution, a PMJ and saline solution, and 35% hydrogen peroxide gel, respectively. Compared with the other groups, the teeth treated with the PMJ and saline solution showed the best tooth-whitening effect. The microhardness of the tooth enamel measurement showed no apparent differences among the three groups. A minor enamel surface morphological change was ob-served via SEM but was considered acceptable. Singlet oxygen (1 O 2) and hydroxyl (• OH) radicals were detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Atomic oxygen (O) was observed in the optical emission spectra of the PMJ. 1 O 2 , • OH, and O were considered to be the key agents during the tooth-whitening process. This novel method of tooth whitening has the potential to revolutionize the clinical tooth-whitening procedure. Index Terms—Electron spin resonance (ESR), optical emission spectra, plasma microjet (PMJ), tooth whitening.
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 11/2010; 38(11):3143. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    • "exact mechanism is not yet fully understood [1], [2]. For more than a century, bleaching has been the dominant clinical toothwhitening method, which includes in-office or power bleaching, dentist-prescribed home bleaching done by the patient, and over-the-counter (OTC) whitening kits. "
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    ABSTRACT: A tooth-whitening process using hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) enhanced by a direct-current cold atmospheric-pressure plasma microjet (PMJ) is presented. Compared with the conventional clinical method of using H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> alone, a significant improvement of the tooth-whitening process was observed when the PMJ was used in the process. The tooth-surface temperature was monitored for safety considerations and did not exceed 37°C at a distance of 1 cm between the exit nozzle of the plasma source and the tooth for a treatment time of 20 min. No apparent differences in the tooth-surface morphology and microhardness were observed between teeth treated with and without the PMJ. The use of the PMJ with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> resulted in an enhanced production of reactive hydroxyl (OH) radicals. This plasma-enhanced tooth-whitening method may be a promising new method for clinical applications.
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 09/2010; 38(8-38):1892 - 1896. DOI:10.1109/TPS.2009.2039585 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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