The bleaching depth of a 35% hydrogen peroxide based in-office product: A study in vitro

School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom
Journal of Dentistry (Impact Factor: 2.75). 02/2005; 33(1):33-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2004.07.008
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to quantify the penetration of 35% hydrogen peroxide into enamel and dentine and to relate this to the resultant shade change of the tooth.
The crowns of 24 caries and developmental defect free human maxillary incisors were stained internally with a standardised tea solution. Twelve specimens were power bleached with light activated 35% hydrogen peroxide and 12 placed in water; both exposure times were 30min. Three different shade assessment methods (Vita shade guide [SG], shade vision system [SVS] and a chromometer) were employed prior to, after tea staining and after power bleaching/water treatments. Twelve specimens each from the bleach group and the water control water group were sectioned mesio-distally. An additional 12 specimens from the bleach and the control group were sectioned labio-palatally. The stain area for each specimen was measured using image analysis software.
With tea staining, the mean changes in Vita shade guide units (SGU) ranged from 3.66 to 8.33. With the SVS system changes of 3.66-9 units were seen. Chromometer readings showed that following bleaching the L* values moved in the direction of black (3.8-6.7) and a* and b* values were in the red (0.3) and yellow (1.5) direction, respectively. Samples bleached and sectioned mesio-distally showed stain coverage of 28.6-39.4%, while palatal sections showed stain coverage of 58-72%. Control samples, whether sectioned mesio-distally or labio-palatally, showed staining throughout the dentine (97-100% coverage).
A 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching gel demonstrated bleaching into dentine of uniform depth.

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    • "Tooth bleaching using oxalic acid was first introduced in 18484, followed by hydrogen peroxide (HP) in 1884.5 Contemporary, tooth bleaching systems are primarily based on oxidation by HP or one of its precursors such as, carbamide peroxide (CP).6 Hydrogen peroxide releases oxygen that breaks down conjugated bonds in protein chains associated with stain into a single bond. This will result in more absorption of colour wavelengths and resulting in the reflection of little colour (i.e., a whitening effect).2 "
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Vital bleaching is one of the most requested cosmetic dental procedures asked by patients who seek a more pleasing smile. This procedure consists of carbamide or hydrogen peroxide gel applications that can be applied in-office or by the patient (at-home/overnight bleaching system). Some in-office treatments utilise whitening light with the objective of speeding up the whitening process. The objective of this article is to review and summarise the current literature with regard to the effect of light-activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. A literature search was conducted using Medline, accessed via the National Library of Medicine Pub Med from 2003 to 2013 searching for articles relating to effectiveness of light activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. This study found conflicting evidence on whether light truly improve tooth whitening. Other factors such as, type of stain, initial tooth colour and subject age which can influence tooth bleaching outcome were discussed. Conclusions: The use of light activator sources with in-office bleaching treatment of vital teeth did not increase the efficacy of bleaching or accelerate the bleaching.
    Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association 09/2014; 55(5):363-8. DOI:10.4103/0300-1652.140316
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    • "Artificial staining of the teeth as established by Suleiman M et al.,[10] was followed in this study. A tea bag (2 g) (Ranfer Tea, Colombo, Sri Lanka) was suspended in 100 ml of boiling deionized water for five minutes, and the solution was cooled to room temperature. "
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the color change in teeth bleached with two different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, containing sweet potato extract as an additive, using a spectrophotometer, and to evaluate the surface changes in enamel using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Baseline color values of 24 artificially stained incisors were obtained using a spectrophotometer. The specimens were divided into two groups of 12 teeth, each based on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as follows: Group I - 35% H(2)O(2) and Group II - 10% H(2)O(2). One-half of the tooth was bleached with H(2)O(2) alone (Subgroup A) and the other half was bleached with a combination of H(2)O(2) and sweet potato extract (Subgroup B). Post bleaching the Commission Internationale de l' Eclairage L(*), a(*), b(*) (CIEL(*)a(*)b(*)) values were obtained and ΔE was calculated. The surfaces of the samples were examined using SEM. The mean ΔE values of groups IB (72.52 ± 2.03) and IIB (71.50 ± 1.81) were significantly higher than those of groups IA (65.24 ± 1.02) and IIA (64.19 ± 1.88), respectively, (P < 0.05). The SEM images of groups IB and IIB showed lesser surface irregularities and morphological alterations in enamel. The addition of sweet potato extract to hydrogen peroxide not only resulted in the restoration of the natural tooth color, but also decreased the effects of bleaching on the enamel morphology, compared to the use of hydrogen peroxide alone.
    Journal of Conservative Dentistry 03/2013; 16(1):45-9. DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.105298
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    • "Nowadays, tooth-whitening systems are based primarily on hydrogen peroxide or one of its precursors, notably carbamide peroxide [2], [3]. They are often used in combination with an activating agent such as a laser or an incoherent light source [4], [5], although the exact mechanism is not yet fully understood [6], [7]. Plasma is the fourth state of matter, aside from solid, liquid, and gas states, which comprises over 99.9% of the universe. "
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    ABSTRACT: We reported in this paper the tooth-whitening effect by a direct-current cold atmospheric-pressure air plasma microjet (PMJ) and saline solution (0.9%). All teeth were randomly divided into three groups, treated for 20 min with an air blow and saline solution, a PMJ and saline solution, and 35% hydrogen peroxide gel, respectively. Compared with the other groups, the teeth treated with the PMJ and saline solution showed the best tooth-whitening effect. The microhardness of the tooth enamel measurement showed no apparent differences among the three groups. A minor enamel surface morphological change was observed via SEM but was considered acceptable. Singlet oxygen (<sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub>) and hydroxyl (*OH) radicals were detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Atomic oxygen (O) was observed in the optical emission spectra of the PMJ. <sup>1</sup>O<sub>2</sub>, *OH, and O were considered to be the key agents during the tooth-whitening process. This novel method of tooth whitening has the potential to revolutionize the clinical tooth-whitening procedure.
    IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 12/2010; 38(11-38):3143 - 3151. DOI:10.1109/TPS.2010.2066291 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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