Influence of pyrethroids and piperonyl butoxide on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of rat brain synaptosomes and leukocyte membranes.
ABSTRACT Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides of low acute toxicity in mammals but the consequences of long-term exposure are of concern. Their insecticidal action is related to neurotoxicity and, in addition, there are indications of mammalian immunotoxicity. In order to clarify structure-activity relationships of the membrane interactions of pyrethroids, the present study compared the influence of selected pyrethroids, i.e. permethrin and the more water soluble esbiol (S-bioallethrin), both type I, and cyfluthrin, type II, on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of rat brain synaptosomes and peritoneal leukocyte membranes. The pyrethroids were tested alone as well as mixed with the enhancing substance piperonyl butoxide (PBO) at concentration ratios of 1:5 and 1:10. At the highest concentration tested, permethrin (10 microM) alone inhibited the ATPase activity of leukocyte membranes by 20%, whereas the synaptosomes were affected less. Esbiol and cyfluthrin alone did not affect either membrane preparation significantly, whereas PBO (50 microM) alone caused 10-15% inhibition. Mixtures of either pyrethroid with PBO inhibited the ATPase activity of both types of membranes (up to 40% inhibition) in a synergistic manner, which always tended to be supra-additive. With esbiol a true potentiation took place. The synergistic interaction between pyrethroid and PBO was most apparent with mixtures of a concentration ratio of 1:5. The ATPase activity of leukocyte membranes tended to be more susceptible to inhibition than that of synaptosomes. The results are in accordance with the assumption that the mammalian toxicity of pyrethroids can be ascribed to a general disturbance of cell membrane function in neuronal tissue. The results indicate that it may also be the case in the immune apparatus.
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ABSTRACT: During their foraging activity, honey bees are often exposed to direct and residual contacts with pesticides, especially insecticides, all substances specifically designed to kill, repel, attract or perturb the vital functions of insects. Insecticides may elicit lethal and sublethal effects of different natures that may affect various biological systems of the honey bee. The first step in the induction of toxicity by a chemical is the interaction between the toxic compound and its molecular target. The action on the molecular target can lead to the induction of observable or non-visible effects. The toxic substance may impair important processes involved in cognitive functions, behaviour or integrity of physiological functions. This review is focused on the neural effects of insecticides that have repercussions on (a) cognitive functions, including learning and memory, habituation, olfaction and gustation, navigation and orientation; (b) behaviour, including foraging and (c) physiological functions, including thermoregulation and muscle activity.Apidologie 05/2012; 43(3):348-370. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we explored the possibility of using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker after deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) exposure with three strains of the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four calculated time-weighted deltamethrin concentrations (20.1, 40.3, 80.6 and 161.3 ng L−1) were compared against control acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of deltamethrin exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the three considered strains. However, diverse responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 80.6 ng L−1 for strain 1 and 20.1 ng L−1 for strains 2 and 3) revealing differences in sensitivity among the three tested strains of D. magna. Our results suggest that after deltamethrin exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility (i.e., variation of strain specific response). Moreover, our results show that strain 1 is the less sensitive in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE, whereas it became the most sensitive when considering the EC50-48 h estimated in the standard ecotoxicity test.Chemosphere 02/2015; 120:351–356. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Concerns about pesticide exposure through food consumption have increased during the past several years. Pyrethroids are applied as insecticides throughout the world. Human metabolism of pyrethroids results in urinary metabolites that are suitable for biological monitoring. The objective of our study was to investigate the relation between food consumption and urinary levels of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), a general metabolite of pyrethroids, in a non-occupational exposed adult population from the IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, diet and self-reported household pesticide exposure was collected. Urinary 3-PBA level of each subject was measured and adjusted by urinary creatinine. We found that people consuming both raw and cooked vegetables five times weekly or more had higher mean levels of 3-PBA in urine (1.03 μg/g creatinine versus 0.52 μg/g creatinine; p=0.009 and 0.99 μg/g creatinine versus 0.58 μg/g creatinine; p=0.01 respectively) than subjects consuming less than five times weekly. In a multivariate model, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking and household insecticide exposure, high intake of raw vegetables (OR: 5.31; 95%CI: 1.32- 21.3) and high intake of cooked vegetables, in particular cruciferous (OR: 4.67; 95%CI: 1.07- 20.5) and leafy vegetables (OR: 6.88; 95%CI: 1.50- 31.7), were associated with high urine 3-PBA levels (⩾ 0.70. μg/g creatinine). The results of this study suggest that part of the variation in pyrethrois intake is explained by vegetable intake.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 11/2012; · 2.99 Impact Factor