When treating patients with epilepsy, dealing with seizure-precipitating factors is a partly neglected and underestimated supplement to more traditional therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of seizure precipitants in a large epilepsy population and to determine which precipitants patients most often reported. Study participants included twins and their family members ascertained from the Norwegian Twin Panel (NTP), the Danish Twin Registry (DTR), and the Mid-Atlantic Twin Registry (MATR). One thousand six hundred seventy-seven patients with epilepsy were identified and were asked about seizure precipitants using a closed-ended questionnaire. Fifty-three percent reported at least one seizure-precipitating factor, while 30% claimed to have experienced two or more such factors. Emotional stress, sleep deprivation, and tiredness were the three most frequently reported precipitants. Patients with generalized seizures seemed to be more sensitive to sleep deprivation and flickering light than those with partial seizures, while women with partial seizures appeared to be more prone to seizures during menstruation than women with generalized seizures. Knowledge of seizure precipitants has practical implications, not only in patient treatment and counseling, but also for diagnosis, in that it may be helpful in facilitating the appearance of interictal epileptiform discharges in EEG and ictal EEG recordings.
"Stress is a commonly reported seizure precipitant in patients with epilepsy  . Stress is a complex phenomenon, but can be defined in terms of its biological, environmental, and psychological aspects, whereby external demands exceed adaptive capacity . "
"There have been several surveys of people with epilepsy in the general population that have indicated that a substantial proportion identify environmental, physical, or emotional factors that are associated with either increased or decreased likelihood of seizure occurrence          . Stress is the most commonly reported seizure precipitant in a number of surveys of people with epilepsy or their carers     , with tiredness and sleep deprivation also commonly mentioned      . Both sleep deprivation and stress have been found to independently predict seizure occurrence in a recent prospective study  (though this was not replicated ). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seizure precipitants are commonly reported in the general population of people with epilepsy. However, there has been little research in this area in people with epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID). We conducted a survey of the situations associated with increased or decreased seizure likelihood in this population. The aim of the research was to identify situations of increased seizure likelihood (SISLs) and situations of decreased seizure likelihood (SDSLs) reported by carers of people with an ID and epilepsy. Three study groups were investigated: two groups comprising individuals with ID associated with a specific genetic diagnosis - Rett syndrome or fragile X syndrome - and one group consisting of individuals with a range of other etiologies. Responses relating to 100 people were received: 44 relating to people with Rett syndrome, 25 to people with fragile X syndrome, and 31 to people whose ID had some other etiologies. Ninety-eight percent of the respondents reported at least one SISL, and 60% reported at least one SDSL. Having more seizure types and greater seizure frequency were associated with a higher number of SISLs reported. The most commonly reported SISLs and SDSLs for each of the three groups are presented. The most common SISL overall was illness, which was reported as an SISL by 71% of the respondents. There was less consensus with regard to SDSLs. These findings provide a greater understanding of when seizures occur in those with ID and epilepsy, with possible implications for adjunctive behavioral management of seizures in those with treatment-refractory epilepsy.
"As suggested by others, a possible mechanism behind this uncontrolled excitability could be an impairment in GABA release under elevated network excitability (such as during stress; Choi et al. 2002; Hensch 1998; Kash et al. 1997; Tian et al. 1999). Comparably, stress is reported to be one of the leading factors to trigger seizures in epilepsy patients (Frucht et al. 2000; Haut et al. 2007; Nakken et al. 2005; Spector et al. 2000; Sperling et al. 2008). Stress is also considered as an important trigger for schizophrenia (Walker & Diforio 1997). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The GABA synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 is critically involved in the activity-dependent regulation of GABAergic inhibition in the central nervous system. It is also required for the maturation of the GABAergic system during adolescence, a phase that is critical for the development of several neuropsychiatric diseases. Mice bearing a null mutation of the GAD65 gene develop hyperexcitability of the amygdala and hippocampus, and a phenotype of increased anxiety and pathological fear memory reminiscent of post-traumatic stress disorder. Although genetic association of GAD65 in human has not yet been reported, these findings are in line with observations of reduced GABAergic function in these brain regions of anxiety disorder patients. The particular value of GAD65(−/−) mice thus lies in modeling the effects of reduced GABAergic function in the mature nervous system. The expression of GAD65 and a second GAD isozyme, GAD67, are differentially regulated in response to stress in limbic brain areas suggesting that by controlling GABAergic inhibition these enzymes determine the vulnerability for the development of pathological anxiety and other stress-induced phenotypes. In fact, we could recently show that GAD65 haplodeficiency, which results in delayed postnatal increase of GABA levels, provides resilience to juvenile-stress induced anxiety to GAD65(+/−) mice thus foiling the increased fear and anxiety in homozygous GAD65(−/−) mice.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.