Oxidative stress, induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, reduces proteasome activities in PC12 cells: implications for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Mutations in familial Parkinson's disease (PD) have been associated with the failure of protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Impairment of proteasome function has also been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD. We examined the proteasome activity in PC12 cells treated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), the dopamine synthetic derivate used in models of PD. We found that 6-OHDA treatment increased protein oxidation, as indicated by carbonyl group accumulation, and increased caspase-3 activity. In addition, there was an increase in trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, and postacidic-like proteasome activities in cells treated with 10-100 microM 6-OHDA, whereas higher doses caused a marked decline. 6-OHDA exposure also increased mRNA expression of the 19S regulatory subunit in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the expression of 20S- and 11S-subunit mRNAs did not change. Administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine to 6-OHDA-treated cells prevented the alteration in proteasome functions. Moreover, reduction in cell viability owing to administration of proteasome inhibitor MG132 or lactacystin was partially prevented by the endogenous antioxidant-reduced glutathione. In conclusion, our data indicate that mild oxidative stress elevates proteasome activity in response to increase in protein damage. Severe oxidative insult might cause UPS failure, which leads to protein aggregation and cell death. Moreover, in the case of UPS inhibition or failure, the blockade of physiological reactive oxygen species production during normal aerobic metabolism is enough to ameliorate cell viability. Control of protein clearance by potent, brain-penetrating antioxidants might act to slow down the progression of PD.
Article: Eriocaulon buergerianum extract protects PC12 cells and neurons in zebrafish against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced damage.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ericaulon buergerianum (Gujingcao) is an ophthalmic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial Chinese medicinal herb. This study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Ericaulon buergerianum ethanol extract (EBE) and to elucidate its underlying action mechanism. The viability of dopaminergic (DA) neuron in zebrafish was examined by anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunostaining. The locomotor activity of zebrafish was assessed with a digital video tracking system. The viability and cellular damage of the PC12 cells were determined by MTT and LDH assays respectively. The nuclear morphological changes in apoptotic cells were evaluated with DNA staining by Hoechst 33342 dye. Intracellular nitric oxide (NO) was quantified by DAF-FM diacetate staining. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was determined by Western blot. EBE inhibited the 6-OHDA-induced decrease in total distance of movement in zebrafish. Pretreatments of EBE (25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml) increased the viability of 6-OHDA-damaged PC12 cells in a dose dependent manner. Protection against 6-OHDA-induced nuclear fragmentation and accumulation of apoptotic bodies was also observed in EBE pretreated cells. Anti-oxidative (inhibition of NO production and iNOS expression in PC12 cells in vitro) activities of EBE are related to its neuroprotective effects in 6-OHDA-induced DA neuron damage. EBE exhibited significant neuroprotective activities in zebrafish, including recovery of dopaminergic neuron loss caused by 6-OHDA in a dose-dependent manner in vivo, inhibition of 6-OHDA-induced decrease of total distance in movement in zebrafish. The iNOS-NO pathway may be involved.Chinese Medicine 01/2011; 6:16. · 1.79 Impact Factor