Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E activity is modulated by HOXA9 at multiple levels.
ABSTRACT The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) alters gene expression on multiple levels. In the cytoplasm, eIF4E acts in the rate-limiting step of translation initiation. In the nucleus, eIF4E facilitates nuclear export of a subset of mRNAs. Both of these functions contribute to eIF4E's ability to oncogenically transform cells. We report here that the homeodomain protein, HOXA9, is a positive regulator of eIF4E. HOXA9 stimulates eIF4E-dependent export of cyclin D1 and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNAs in the nucleus, as well as increases the translation efficiency of ODC mRNA in the cytoplasm. These activities depend on direct interactions of HOXA9 with eIF4E and are independent of the role of HOXA9 in transcription. At the biochemical level, HOXA9 mediates these effects by competing with factors that repress eIF4E function, in particular the proline-rich homeodomain PRH/Hex. This competitive mechanism of eIF4E regulation is disrupted in a subset of leukemias, where HOXA9 displaces PRH from eIF4E, thereby contributing to eIF4E's dysregulation. In regard to these results and our previous finding that approximately 200 homeodomain proteins contain eIF4E binding sites, we propose that homeodomain modulation of eIF4E activity is a novel means through which this family of proteins implements their effects on growth and development.
SourceAvailable from: Isabelle Bergiers[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hox proteins are conserved homeodomain transcription factors known to be crucial regulators of animal development. As transcription factors, the functions and modes of action (co-factors, target genes) of Hox proteins have been very well studied in a multitude of animal models. However, a handful of reports established that Hox proteins may display molecular activities distinct from gene transcription regulation. Here, we reveal that Hoxa2 interacts with 20S proteasome subunits and RCHY1 (also known as PIRH2), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets p53 for degradation. We further show that Hoxa2 promotes proteasome-dependent degradation of RCHY1 in an ubiquitin-independent manner. Correlatively, Hoxa2 alters the RCHY1-mediated ubiquitination of p53 and promotes p53 stabilization. Together, our data establish that Hoxa2 can regulate the proteasomal degradation of RCHY1 and stabilization of p53.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80387. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080387 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hox proteins are conserved homeodomain transcription factors involved in the control of embryo patterning, organ development and cell differentiation during animal development and adult life. Although recognizably active in gene regulation, accumulating reports support that Hox proteins are also active in controlling other molecular processes like mRNA translation, DNA repair, initiation of DNA replication and possibly modulation of signal transduction. Here we review experimental evidence as well as databases entries indicative of non-transcriptional activities of Hox proteins. Developmental Dynamics, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Developmental Dynamics 01/2014; 243(1). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.24060 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Homeobox genes comprise a super-family of evolutionarily conserved genes that play essential roles in controlling body plan specification and cell fate determination. Substantial evidence indicates that leukemogenesis is driven by abnormal expression of homeobox genes that control hematopoiesis. In solid tumors, aberrant expression of homeobox genes has been increasingly found to modulate diverse processes such as cell proliferation, cell death, metastasis, angiogenesis and DNA repair. This review discusses how homeobox genes are deregulated in solid tumors and the functional significance of this deregulation in the hallmarks of cancer.09/2013; 1(2-3):67-76. DOI:10.1166/ch.2013.1007