Red berries of Ruscus aculeatus L., a wild shrub typical of Mediterranean Europe and Africa, were investigated for the first time in order to determine the profile of anthocyanins. The pigments were extracted from the skins of the berries with 0.1% HCl in methanol, purified using a C-18 solid phase cartridge, and identified by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection-mass spectrometry analysis. Information from HPLC profiles, saponification, and acid hydrolysis of the anthocyanins showed that the major anthocyanins were pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside (64%), pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside (16%), and pelargonidin 3-O-trans-p-coumarylglucoside (13%). The attractive color of R. aculeatus berries and the great abundance of the plant in the south of Italy make these berries a new and promising source of natural colorants.
"Because anthocyanins are unstable compounds, the availability of standards is poor. for this reason, it is very difficult and expensive to obtain standards for all anthocyanins present in the sample, and many authors choose one glycoside as a reference for the calibration (Baj et al., 1983; Versari et al., 1997; LoNgo & VasapoLLo, 2005). This is almost correct because the chromatographic responses of these compounds at wavelengths of around 520 nm are rather similar. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four ecotypes of pomegranate fruits growing in the Salento area were characterized for their content in terms of total phenols, sugars, organic acids, anthocyanins, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The results showed that in the fruit juice the amount of phenols ranged between 0.8–1.7 g l−1; the content in terms of simple sugars was about 140 g l−1, while the amount of citric and malic acids ranged between 1.4–13.3 and 0.8–7.7 g l−1, respectively. Seven anthocyanin pigments were found; these were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively by HPLC-DAD-MS and identified as delphinidin 3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside, pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-arabinoside. The antioxidant activity, determined as DPPH scavenger and TEAC, ranged between 17.2 and 39.1% and between 9 and 19 μmol Trolox per ml of juice, respectively. All the pomegranate juices showed an anti-inflammatory activity (measured by COX inhibitory assay) which was compared with two commercial anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen and Nimesulide).
"Acid concentration of the extraction medium was 0.01N. M3: methanol–water medium acidified with hydrochloric acid. 1 mL of concentrated HCl (37%) was added into 1 L of methanol, as previously described (Longo and Vasapollo, 2005). 2.5. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flowers of Delonix regia trees from Ivory Coast are traditionally macerated in water to prep. beverages with beneficial health properties mainly due to their polyphenolic contents. Different maceration procedures, mimicking the traditional process, were compared on the basis of polyphenol content followed by HPLC-DAD anal. Under optimized maceration ratio (R = plant sample wt./maceration media vol.), plant extns. were compared, including acidified-water-based media and assisted-ultrasound or stirring extn. procedures. Diffusion kinetics of polyphenol families (anthocyanins, flavonols and phenolic acids) were followed by HPLC and lead to find optimum ratio (R = 1/100). Flavonol contents were 28.5, 31, and 33.5 μmol g-1 (expressed as quercetin equiv.), using acidified-water (0.01N) media with sulfuric or citric acids. Anthocyanin and phenolic acid contents were within the same range for these water media (5.6 μmol g-1 as cyanidin equiv. and 27.5 μmol g-1 as gallic acid (GA) equiv., resp.). Ultrasound-assisted procedure shortened maceration time (three times shorter) but did not show higher level of total polyphenol than stirring-assisted procedure (39 μmol g-1 GA equiv.). This eco-friendly and low-cost extn. process will provide to African people, with safer quality and longer availability, polyphenol-rich bio-products. [on SciFinder(R)]
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal placement of actuators and sensors for stochastic systems is investigated. Conflict between the transient response and steady-state performance in optimal actuator placement has been found. However, in sensor placement, it is expected that the objectives of transient response and steady-state performance are still consistent. It is also found that the actuator placement and sensor placement are coupled
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