Rice Plant Development: from Zygote to Spikelet

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-865 Japan.
Plant and Cell Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.93). 02/2005; 46(1):23-47. DOI: 10.1093/pcp/pci501
Source: PubMed


Rice is becoming a model plant in monocotyledons and a model cereal crop. For better understanding of the rice plant, it is essential to elucidate the developmental programs of the life cycle. To date, several attempts have been made in rice to categorize the developmental processes of some organs into substages. These studies are based exclusively on the morphological and anatomical viewpoints. Recent advancement in genetics and molecular biology has given us new aspects of developmental processes. In this review, we first describe the phasic development of the rice plant, and then describe in detail the developmental courses of major organs, leaf, root and spikelet, and specific organs/tissues. Also, for the facility of future studies, we propose a staging system for each organ.

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Available from: Hidemi Kitano, Oct 19, 2014
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    • "Moreover, GA is critical for pollen formation and pollen tube growth (Singh et al. 2002; Chhun et al. 2007), and GA signaling pathways are conserved between rice and Arabidopsis (Hedden and Phillips 2000; Fleet and Sun 2005). In particular , the homology of several factors involved in GA signaling and the strong similarities in stamen development between Arabidopsis and rice indicate the existence of conserved pathways of anther and pollen development within angiosperms (Chen et al. 2005; Itoh et al. 2005b; Wilson and Zhang 2009; Plackett et al. 2011). Phenotypic screens, such as those for GA-insensitive dwarf or slender-type mutants in Arabidopsis and rice, have identified several genes necessary for GA-responsive signaling (Aya et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Gibberellic acid (GA; or gibberellin) affects the development of floral organs, especially anthers and pollen, and perturbation of development of male floral organs can cause sterility. Many studies of GA signaling have concentrated on anther development, but the effect of GA on grain production remains to be examined. Using a cross of 'Milyang23 (M23)', which has a functional allele of Early flowering1 (EL1), and 'H143', which has a nonfunctional el1 allele, we generated heterogeneous inbred family-near isogenic lines (HNILs) that are homozygous for EL1 [HNIL(M23)] or el1 [HNIL(H143)]. Here, we found that HNIL(H143) exhibited anther deformities and low pollen viability. The expression of GAMYB, a major activator of GA signaling, and its downstream genes CYP703A3 and KAR, mainly involved in pollen formation, increased abnormally during spikelet development; this activation of GA signaling may cause the sterility. To confirm the negative effect of the el1 mutation on spikelet fertility, we examined a line carrying a T-DNA insertion el1 mutant [hereafter ZH11(el1)] and its parental cultivar 'Zhonghua11 (ZH11)'. ZH11(el1) showed nearly identical defects in anther development and pollen viability as HNIL(H143), leading to decreased seed setting rate. However, the elite japonica cultivar Koshihikari, which has a nonfunctional el1 allele for early flowering in long days, produces fertile spikelets and normal grain yields, like other elite japonica cultivars. This indicates that as-yet-unknown regulator(s) that can overcome the male sterile phenotype of the el1 mutation must have been introduced into Koshihikari. The el1 mutation contributes to early flowering in japonica rice under long days but fails to limit GA signaling, thus negatively affecting spikelet fertility, which results in a loss of grain yield. Thus, EL1 is essential for photoperiod sensitivity in flowering as well as spikelet fertility in grain production.
    Rice 12/2015; 8(1):58. DOI:10.1186/s12284-015-0058-1 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "The fertility of rice pollen grains is a critical agronomic trait affecting rice yield, and pollen sterility eliminates the difficulty of emasculation, thus it is a simple but effective way for hybrid rice production (Cheng et al. 2007; Li et al. 2007). Production of pollen is a critical process of sexual plants during anther development in the lifecycle (Itoh et al. 2005). Briefly, anther primordial cells generate meiocytes and four lobed cell layers, including the epidermis, endothecium, middle layer, and tapetum. "
    Dataset: JIPB-ABCG15

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    • "During rice root morphogenesis, several developmental stages can be clearly distinguished, including crown root initiation, emergence, and elongation (Itoh et al., 2005; Coudert et al., 2010; Kitomi et al., 2011b; Wang et al., 2011). Although several key genes have been identified and characterized in the regulation of crown root development (Inukai et al., 2005; Liu et al., 2005; Kitomi et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2009; Zhao et al., 2009), the molecular mechanisms of crown root formation and the functional relationship between these genes are not known. "
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    ABSTRACT: Crown roots are the main components of the fibrous root system in rice (Oryza sativa). WOX11, a WUSCHEL-related homeobox gene specifically expressed in the emerging crown root meristem, is a key regulator in crown root development. However, the nature of WOX11 function in crown root development has remained elusive. Here, we identified a rice AP2/ERF protein, ERF3, which interacts with WOX11 and was expressed in crown root initials and during crown root growth. Functional analysis revealed that ERF3 was essential for crown root development and acts in auxin- and cytokinin-responsive gene expression. Downregulation of ERF3 in wox11 mutants produced a more severe root phenotype. Also, increased expression of ERF3 could partially complement wox11, indicating that the two genes functioned cooperatively to regulate crown root development. ERF3 and WOX11 shared a common target, the cytokinin-responsive gene RR2. The expression of ERF3 and WOX11 only partially overlapped, underlining a spatio-temporal control of RR2 expression and crown root development. Furthermore, ERF3-regulated RR2 expression was involved in crown root initiation, while the ERF3/WOX11 interaction likely repressed RR2 during crown root elongation. These results define a mechanism regulating gene expression involved in cytokinin signaling during different stages of crown root development in rice. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.
    The Plant Cell 08/2015; 27(9). DOI:10.1105/tpc.15.00227 · 9.34 Impact Factor
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