Exercise and its effects on the central nervous system.
ABSTRACT Exercise can have profound effects on numerous biologic systems within the human body, including the central nervous system (CNS). The inherent complexity of the CNS, and the methodologic difficulties in evaluating its in vivo neurochemistry in humans, provide challenges to investigators studying the impact of exercise on the CNS. As a result, our knowledge in this area of exercise science remains relatively limited. However, advances in research technology are allowing investigators to gain valuable insight into the neurobiologic mechanisms that contribute to the bidirectional communication that occurs between the periphery and the CNS during exercise. This article examines how exercise-induced alterations in the CNS contribute to central fatigue and the overtraining syndrome, and how exercise can influence psychologic wellbeing and cognitive function.
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ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this study was to test the effect of psycho-social oriented recreative activities on self-image of children aged 7-13 who experienced a trauma. In this respect, " recreative activities program " which was developed by the researchers was applied to the children to see its effects. A mixed design in which pre-test, post-test and control group was used was applied. Children were contacted by Social Help and cooperation foundation. Families', the foundation's and the children's' permissions were taken. Participants were 14 children who experienced a trauma. 7 children were in experiment and the remaining 7 participants were in the control group. Offer Self-Image Questionnaire was applied to the participants. Data was analysed by SPSS 17 program and level of significance was determined to be 0.05. Results showed that psycho-social oriented recreative activities are affective to enhance self-image of children who experienced a trauma. This effect was on, family relationships, impulse control, coping power, emotional tone, social functioning, social relationships and mental health.
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ABSTRACT: Physical exercise and excessive consumption of monosodium glutamate (MSG) can affect the morphological and electrophysiological organization of the brain during development. However, the interaction of both factors remains unclear. We analyzed the effect of this interaction on the excitability-related phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD) and the microglial reaction expressed as Iba1-immunolabeled cells in the rat motor cortex. MSG (2g/kg or 4g/kg) was administered every other day during the first 14 postnatal days. Treadmill exercise started at 21-23 days of life and lasted 3 weeks, 5 days/week, for 30min/d. At 45-60 days, CSD was recorded for 4h at two cortical points and the CSD parameters (velocity, amplitude, and duration of the negative potential change) calculated. Confirming previous observations, exercised rats presented with lower CSD velocities (3.29±0.18mm/min) than the sedentary group (3.80±0.18mm/min; P<0.05). MSG increased CSD velocities in the exercised rats compared to saline-treated and exercised animals in a dose-dependent manner (3.49±0.19, 4.05±0.18, and 3.27±0.26 for 2g/kg MSG, 4g/kg MSG, and saline, respectively; P<0.05). The amplitude (ranging from 14.3±5.9 to 18.7±6.2mV) and duration (46.7±11.1 to 60.5±11.6 s) of the negative slow potential shift of the CSD were similar in all groups. Both exercise and MSG treatment increased Iba1 immunolabeling. The results confirm that physical exercise decelerates CSD propagation. However, it does not impede the CSD-accelerating action of MSG. These effects were accompanied by a cortical microglia reaction. Therefore, the data suggest that treadmill exercise early in life can influence the development of cortical electrical activity.International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2013.12.008 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Recently the psychological effects of space flight have gained in attention. In uncovering the psychological challenges that individuals and teams can face, we need research options that integrate psychosocial aspects with behavioral, performance, technical and environmental issues. Future perspectives in Space Psychology and Human Spaceflight are reviewed in this paper. The topics covered include psychosocial and neurobeha-vioural aspects, neurocognitive testing tools, decision making, autonomy and delayed communications, well being, mental health, situational awareness, and methodology. Authors were members of a European Space Agency (ESA) Research Topical Team on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Human Spaceflight. They discuss the different topics under a common perspective of a theoretical and practical framework, showing interactions, relationships and possible solutions for the different aspects and variables in play. Recommendations for every topic are offered and summarized for future research in the field. The different proposed research ideas can be accomplished using analogs and simulation experiments, short-and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight microgravity studies. These topics are especially important for future Moon and Mars mission design and training.Acta Astronautica 12/2012; 81(2). DOI:10.1016/j.actaastro.2012.08.013 · 0.82 Impact Factor