Abnormal cell cycle regulation in primary human uveal melanoma cultures.
ABSTRACT Uveal malignant melanoma is the most frequent primary intraocular tumor in adult humans. The cellular events leading to neoplasic transformation of normal uveal melanocytes are not well known when compared to other cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of G1 and G1/S regulatory proteins of the cell cycle in human uveal melanoma (UM) primary cell cultures, since these proteins are common targets in tumor development. Further, freshly established and characterized tumor cells are a better model for in vitro studies when compared to cell lines established long ago. Human primary cell cultures from eight different UM were established, as well as one primary culture from rhesus uveal normal melanocytes (UNM). Primary human UM cultures were characterized by a low establishment and growing rate. From four successful cultures, three showed a high expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, p16NK4A, and p27KIP1 with no variations in cyclin A, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and CDK4. Interestingly, in one of the cultured tumors, tumor suppressor protein retinoblastoma (Rb) did not bind E2F despite the fact that Rb was found in its hypophosphorylated form. No mutations in either RB1 or the Rb-binding pocket of E2F-1 were detected. Furthermore, we identified seven proteins co-immunoprecipitating with Rb in this tumor, including Lamin A/C and six proteins not previously reported to bind Rb: Hsc70, high mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1), hnRPN, glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), EF-1, and EF-2. Our results indicate that the overexpression of cyclins D1/E and CDKIs p16 and p27, together with a deregulation of the Rb/E2F pathway, may be implicated in the development of human UM.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignant ocular tumor in human adults. Relevant mouse models of human uveal melanoma still remain to be developed. We have studied the transgenic mouse strain, Tyrp-1-TAg, to try to gain insight into possible molecular mechanisms common to pigmented ocular neoplasms occurring spontaneously in the eyes of these mice and human choroidal melanoma. The role of two members of the ETS (E26 avian leukemia oncogene) family of transcription factors, ETS-1 and ETS-2, has been investigated in many cancers but has not yet been studied in ocular tumors. This is the first study describing the production and distribution of ETS-1 and ETS-2 mRNAs and proteins using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in murine ocular tissue sections of normal control eyes and tumoral eyes from mice of the same age. Using semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blots experiments, we compared changes in ETS-1 and ETS-2 expression, their protein levels, and the regulation of some of their target gene expressions at different stages of the ocular tumoral progression in the transgenic mouse model, Tyrp-1-TAg, with those in normal eyes from control mice of the same age. In normal control adult mouse eyes, ETS-1 was mostly present in the nuclei of all neuroretinal layers whereas ETS-2 was mostly localized in the cytosol of the cell bodies of these layers with a smaller amount present in the nuclei. Both were found in the retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE). ETS-1 and ETS-2 mRNA and protein levels were much higher in the ocular tissues of Tyrp-1-TAg mice than in control ocular tissues from wild-type mice. This upregulation was correlated with tumor progression. We also demonstrated upregulation of ETS-1 and ETS-2 target expressions in Tyrp-1-TAg mice when comparing with the same target expressions in control mice. Our findings suggest that ETS-1 and ETS-2 are upregulated in ocular tumors derived from the retinal epithelium and may be involved in one or several signaling pathways that activate the expression of a set of genes involved in ocular tumor progression such as those encoding ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), PAI-1 (Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and p16 (Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A).Molecular vision 02/2008; 14:1912-28. · 2.20 Impact Factor