New agents for invasive mycoses in children.
ABSTRACT Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children of all ages. This review summarizes information on new antifungal agents, including current data on their clinical use in children, as well as alternative strategies such as antifungal combination and immunomodulation therapy.
Novel antifungal agents, such as the echinocandins and the second-generation triazoles, were recently introduced that exhibit promising efficacy against Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., and other opportunistic fungal pathogens. These compounds are generally well tolerated and show substantial efficacy as salvage treatment and equal or even superior efficacy compared with older azoles or amphotericin B as first-line or empiric therapy for fungal infections. Clinical studies of pharmacokinetics and efficacy of the new agents in the pediatric population are, however, limited.
The response rates observed with the recently introduced drugs, although superior in some cases compared with older antifungal agents, are still far from satisfactory. The development of new antifungal compounds as well as the use of alternative approaches of combination therapy and immunomodulation should be pursued through well-designed laboratory and clinical studies in pediatric patients.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this analysis was to describe the pharmacokinetic characteristics of anidulafungin in patients with serious fungal disease based on pharmacokinetic data collected during four recently completed or ongoing Phase II/III clinical studies. A total of 600 anidulafungin plasma samples from 225 patients across the four studies were available for analysis. Patients received daily intravenous infusions of 50, 75, or 100 mg anidulafungin, preceded by a loading dose that was twice the daily dose. The analysis population consisted of 129 patients with esophageal candidiasis, 87 with invasive candidiasis, 7 with invasive aspergillosis, and 2 with azole refractory mucosal candidiasis. A population analysis approach was used to develop a steady-state pharmacokinetic model for anidulafungin, assess the significance of possible covariates, and determine the amount of intersubject and random residual variability. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination provided the best fit to the data. The clearance of anidulafungin was influenced by weight and gender, and subjects in the invasive candidiasis study had a typical clearance that was approximately 30% higher than subjects from other studies. Weight was determined to be a predictor of the central volume of distribution. The covariates on clearance accounted for less than 20% of the intersubject variability and therefore are deemed to be of little clinical relevance. There was no evidence that the presence of rifampin or metabolic substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of cytochrome p450 influenced the clearance of anidulafungin. This indicates that dosing adjustments are not necessary when anidulafungin is administered in the presence of medications falling into these classifications.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 07/2004; 44(6):590-8. · 2.84 Impact Factor
- British Journal of Ophthalmology 08/2002; 86(7):829-30. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: LY303366 is a novel antifungal echinocandin with excellent in vitro activity against Aspergillus spp. We compared four doses (1, 2.5, 10, and 25 mg/kg of body weight) of LY303366 with amphotericin B (0.5 to 5 mg/kg) in a temporarily neutropenic murine model of invasive aspergillosis against an amphotericin B-susceptible (AF210) and an amphotericin B-resistant (AF65) Aspergillus fumigatus isolate based on in vivo response. Mice were immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and infected 3 days later. Treatment started 18 h after infection and lasted for 10 days. LY303366 was given once daily intravenously for 10 days, and amphotericin B (at 0.5, 2, and 5 mg/kg) was given once daily intraperitoneally for 10 days, or only on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 (at 5 mg/kg). Kidneys and lungs from survivors were cultured on day 11. Control mice in both experiments had 90 to 100% mortality. Amphotericin B at 0.5 mg/kg and LY303366 at 1 mg/kg yielded 10 to 20% survival rates for mice infected with either AF210 or AF65. Amphotericin B at 2 and 5 (both regimens) mg/kg yielded a 70 to 100% survival rate for mice infected with AF210 but a 10 to 30% survival rate for mice infected with AF65 (P = 0.01 to 0.04 compared with AF210). Against AF210 and AF65, LY303366 at 2.5, 10, and 25 mg/kg produced a survival rate of 70 to 80%, which was as effective as amphotericin B for AF210, but superior to amphotericin B for AF65 (P < 0.03 to 0.0006). For AF65, LY303366 at 10 and 25 mg/kg/day was superior to amphotericin B at 2 and 5 mg/kg/day in reducing tissue colony counts (P = 0.01 to 0.003), and for AF210, amphotericin B at 5 mg/kg/day and at 5 mg/kg in four doses was more effective than all four regimens of LY303366 in reducing renal culture counts (P = 0.01 to 0.0001). The present study shows, for the first time, that in vivo resistance of A. fumigatus to amphotericin B exists, although this could not be detected by in vitro susceptibility assays. Furthermore, LY303366 appears to be effective against amphotericin B-susceptible and -resistant A. fumigatus infection in this model and should be further evaluated clinically.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/1998; 42(4):873-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor