Deviance-related electrophysiological activity in mice: Is there mismatch negativity in mice?
ABSTRACT Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential (ERP) that provides an index of auditory sensory memory and has become an important tool to investigate auditory sensory memory in cognitive neuroscience and disorders such as schizophrenia and dyslexia. The development of a mouse model of human MMN would permit to investigate the molecular biology of normal and dysfunctional MMN generation. However, the presence of MMN-like electrophysiological activity in mice has not been demonstrated.
Deviance-related ERPs were recorded in awake mice using 3 frequency deviance paradigms and one duration deviance paradigm. These paradigms were modelled after paradigms used in human studies to characterize MMN.
Significant deviance-related activity was observed in all paradigms. However, in all frequency deviance paradigms this activity manifested as an enhancement of similar activity to the standard due to differences in stimulation rate between deviant and standard stimuli rather than qualitatively different MMN-like activity. In the duration deviance paradigm negative deflections were observed that showed characteristics typical of human MMN.
MMN-like activity can be observed in mice in duration deviance paradigms. In frequency deviance paradigms effects of different stimulation rates of deviant and standard stimuli seem to be the main determinants of deviance-related activity.
Investigations of MMN-like ERPs in mice may permit to investigate the molecular basis for normal and abnormal MMN generation in neuropsychiatric disorders and dyslexia.
- SourceAvailable from: Tsuyoshi Araki
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "MMN-like responses have also been reported in monkeys (62, 63), cats (64), guinea pigs (65), rats (66–75), and mice (76–78). Some studies have reported that evoked ERP responses are not necessarily MMN in rabbits (79), rats (80, 81), and mice (82). "
ABSTRACT: Recent reviews and meta-analyses suggest that reducing the duration of untreated psychosis leads to better symptomatic and functional outcome in patients with psychotic disorder. Early intervention attenuates the symptoms of individuals at clinical high-risk (HR) for psychosis and may delay or prevent their transition to psychosis. Identifying biological markers in the early stages of psychotic disorder is an important step toward elucidating the pathophysiology, improving prediction of the transition to psychosis, and introducing targeted early intervention for help-seeking individuals aiming for better outcome. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of event-related potentials that reflects preattentive auditory sensory memory and is a promising biomarker candidate for schizophrenia. Reduced MMN amplitude is a robust finding in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Recent reports have shown that people in the early stages of psychotic disorder exhibit attenuation of MMN amplitude. MMN in response to duration deviants and in response to frequency deviants reveals different patterns of deficits. These findings suggest that MMN may be useful for identifying clinical stages of psychosis and for predicting the risk of development. MMN may also be a "translatable" biomarker since it reflects N-methyl-d-aspartte receptor function, which plays a fundamental role in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Furthermore, MMN-like responses can be recorded in animals such as mice and rats. This article reviews MMN studies conducted on individuals with HR for psychosis, first-episode psychosis, recent-onset psychosis, and on animals. Based on the findings, the authors discuss the potential of MMN as a clinical biomarker for early intervention for help-seeking individuals in the early stages of psychotic disorder, and as a translatable neurophysiological marker for the preclinical assessment of pharmacological agents used in animal models that mimic early stages of the disorder.Frontiers in Psychiatry 09/2013; 4:115. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00115
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "MMN-like responses have been successfully obtained in recordings from non-human primates (macaques, , ), rabbits , cats , mice  and guinea pigs . In contrast, MMN studies in rats provide somewhat inconsistent results. "
ABSTRACT: Detecting sudden environmental changes is crucial for the survival of humans and animals. In the human auditory system the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), reflects the violation of predictable stimulus regularities, established by the previous auditory sequence. Given the considerable potentiality of the MMN for clinical applications, establishing valid animal models that allow for detailed investigation of its neurophysiological mechanisms is important. Rodent studies, so far almost exclusively under anesthesia, have not provided decisive evidence whether an MMN analogue exists in rats. This may be due to several factors, including the effect of anesthesia. We therefore used epidural recordings in awake black hooded rats, from two auditory cortical areas in both hemispheres, and with bandpass filtered noise stimuli that were optimized in frequency and duration for eliciting MMN in rats. Using a classical oddball paradigm with frequency deviants, we detected mismatch responses at all four electrodes in primary and secondary auditory cortex, with morphological and functional properties similar to those known in humans, i.e., large amplitude biphasic differences that increased in amplitude with decreasing deviant probability. These mismatch responses significantly diminished in a control condition that removed the predictive context while controlling for presentation rate of the deviants. While our present study does not allow for disambiguating precisely the relative contribution of adaptation and prediction error processing to the observed mismatch responses, it demonstrates that MMN-like potentials can be obtained in awake and unrestrained rats.PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e63203. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063203 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "However, there are also negative findings in rodents (frequency changes: Lazar and Metherate, 2003; von der Behrens et al., 2009, speech sound changes: Eriksson and Villa, 2005). Furthermore, while experiments in humans have consistently supported the memory-comparison explanation (e.g., Schröger and Wolff, 1996; Jacobsen and Schröger, 2001; Jacobsen et al., 2003), animal studies have provided inconsistent results (support for memory-comparison explanation: Ruusuvirta et al., 1998; Tikhonravov et al., 2008, 2010; Ruusuvirta et al., 2010; Astikainen et al., 2011, support for the refractoriness explanation: Lazar and Metherate, 2003; Umbricht et al., 2005). Moreover, to contrast the memory-comparison and the refractoriness explanation, animal studies have mainly relied on the deviant-alone condition in which standards are omitted leaving only “control–deviant” stimuli in the series (Kraus et al., 1994; King et al., 1995; Ruusuvirta et al., 1998; Lazar and Metherate, 2003; Umbricht et al., 2005; Tikhonravov et al., 2008, 2010; for equiprobable control condition, see Ruusuvirta et al., 2010; Astikainen et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Understanding speech is based on neural representations of individual speech sounds. In humans, such representations are capable of supporting an automatic and memory-based mechanism for auditory change detection, as reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN) of event-related potentials. There are also findings of neural representations of speech sounds in animals, but it is not known whether these representations can support the change detection mechanism analogous to that underlying the MMN in humans. To this end, we presented synthesized spoken syllables to urethane-anesthetized rats while local field potentials were epidurally recorded above their primary auditory cortex. In an oddball condition, a deviant stimulus /ga/ or /ba/ (probability 1:12 for each) was rarely and randomly interspersed between frequently presented standard stimulus /da/ (probability 10:12). In an equiprobable condition, 12 syllables, including /da/, /ga/, and /ba/, were presented in a random order (probability 1:12 for each). We found evoked responses of higher amplitude to the deviant /ba/, albeit not to /ga/, relative to the standard /da/ in the oddball condition. Furthermore, the responses to /ba/ were higher in amplitude in the oddball condition than in the equiprobable condition. The findings suggest that anesthetized rat's brain can form representations of human speech sounds, and that these representations can support the memory-based change detection mechanism analogous to that underlying the MMN in humans. Our findings show a striking parallel in speech processing between humans and rodents and may thus pave the way for feasible animal models of memory-based change detection.Frontiers in Psychology 10/2011; 2:283. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00283 · 2.80 Impact Factor