Effects of candesartan cilexetil and enalapril on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Department of Medical Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia, Italy.
Journal of Hypertension (Impact Factor: 4.22). 03/2005; 23(2):435-44. DOI: 10.1097/00004872-200502000-00027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Circulating adhesion molecules may have a prognostic significance as markers of endothelial damage. Drugs which inhibit the renin-angiotensin system may be effective in reducing circulating or tissue adhesion molecules, albeit data available are scarce. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril and a highly selective angiotensin receptor blocker, candesartan cilexetil, on circulating adhesion molecules in a large sample of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The study was comparative, multicenter, randomized and double blind, with two parallel groups.
NIDDM patients with a diagnosis of mild (grade 1) essential hypertension were included in the study, at the end of a 2-week placebo run-in period. The primary end-point of the study was to evaluate changes of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plasma levels during treatment. The secondary end-points were: changes in vascular cells adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) circulating levels and of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) as well; 129 patients were randomized: 66 in the candesartan group and 63 in the enalapril group, 118 of them completed the scheduled 24-week treatment period.
Candesartan and enalapril equally reduced circulating level of ICAM-1 and exerted comparable effects on changes of other adhesion molecules and coagulation factors. A similar blood pressure-lowering effect was observed with the two drugs (candesartan: from 148/90 +/- 11/8 to 132/82 +/- 12/7 mmHg, P < 0.01, enalapril: from 148/91 +/- 12/8 to 131/85 +/- 14/6 mmHg, P < 0.01). Candesartan was more effective than enalapril in the reduction of albuminuria (P < 0.05 between treatments), although urinary protein excretion can be considered normal in the majority of patients. The two drugs were comparable in terms of adverse events reported.
Candesartan and enalapril showed similar effects on blood pressure and on circulating adhesion molecules. In this study urinary protein excretion was reduced more by candesartan.

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