Effects of candesartan cilexetil and enalapril on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT Circulating adhesion molecules may have a prognostic significance as markers of endothelial damage. Drugs which inhibit the renin-angiotensin system may be effective in reducing circulating or tissue adhesion molecules, albeit data available are scarce. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril and a highly selective angiotensin receptor blocker, candesartan cilexetil, on circulating adhesion molecules in a large sample of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The study was comparative, multicenter, randomized and double blind, with two parallel groups.
NIDDM patients with a diagnosis of mild (grade 1) essential hypertension were included in the study, at the end of a 2-week placebo run-in period. The primary end-point of the study was to evaluate changes of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) plasma levels during treatment. The secondary end-points were: changes in vascular cells adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), von Willebrand factor (vWF), fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) circulating levels and of urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) as well; 129 patients were randomized: 66 in the candesartan group and 63 in the enalapril group, 118 of them completed the scheduled 24-week treatment period.
Candesartan and enalapril equally reduced circulating level of ICAM-1 and exerted comparable effects on changes of other adhesion molecules and coagulation factors. A similar blood pressure-lowering effect was observed with the two drugs (candesartan: from 148/90 +/- 11/8 to 132/82 +/- 12/7 mmHg, P < 0.01, enalapril: from 148/91 +/- 12/8 to 131/85 +/- 14/6 mmHg, P < 0.01). Candesartan was more effective than enalapril in the reduction of albuminuria (P < 0.05 between treatments), although urinary protein excretion can be considered normal in the majority of patients. The two drugs were comparable in terms of adverse events reported.
Candesartan and enalapril showed similar effects on blood pressure and on circulating adhesion molecules. In this study urinary protein excretion was reduced more by candesartan.
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ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced-glycation-end-products (RAGE) has been implicated as a pro-inflammatory factor in chronic inflammatory conditions such as diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of the soluble-RAGE (sRAGE), the extracellular domain of RAGE, on RAGE expression and NF-kappaB translocation in human-salivary gland-cell-lines (HSG). Cells were stimulated with agonist S100A4, fusion protein of RAGE encompassing the extracellular domain of RAGE (ex-RAGE), ex-RAGE followed by S100A4, or S100A4 followed by ex-RAGE. Our study indicates that RAGE expression was highest at 150 microg/microl of S100A4 and efficiently down-regulated by 1.8-fold (P < 0.05) when ex-RAGE was incubated prior to agonist S100A4. RAGE protein was also consistently down-regulated by 20-40% with pre-incubation of ex-RAGE. More importantly, nuclear translocation of p65 and p52 of NF-kappaB by S100A4 was inhibited in the presence of ex-RAGE, confirming anti-inflammatory function of ex-RAGE. In conclusion, ex-RAGE down-regulates RAGE expression and inhibits p65 and p52 activation in HSG, providing evidence that ex-RAGE functions as a "decoy" to RAGE-ligand interaction and thus potentially dampening inflammatory conditions.Journal of Cellular Physiology 11/2009; 221(2):430-4. DOI:10.1002/jcp.21873 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) play an important role in accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes. We have recently found that the soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) levels are significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in nondiabetic subjects and positively associated with the presence of coronary artery disease in diabetes. In this study, we examined whether serum levels of sRAGE correlated with inflammatory biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighty-six Japanese type 2 diabetic patients (36 men and 50 women, mean age 68.4+/-9.6 years) underwent a complete history and physical examination, determination of blood chemistries, sRAGE, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Univariate regression analysis showed that serum levels of sRAGE positively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (r=0.437, P=0.0001), MCP-1 (r=0.359, P=0.001), TNF-alpha (r=0.291, P=0.006), and hyperlipidemia medication (r=0.218, P=0.044). After multiple regression analyses, ALT (P<0.0001), MCP-1 (P=0.007), and TNF-alpha (P=0.023) remained significant. The present study demonstrates for the first time that serum levels of sRAGE are positively associated with MCP-1 and TNF-alpha levels in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations suggest the possibility that sRAGE level may become a novel biomarker of vascular inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients.Molecular Medicine 13(3-4):185-9. DOI:10.2119/2006–00090.Nakamura · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tesis Univ. Granada. Departamento de Medicina. Leída el 2 de julio de 2009