Phosphostim-activated gamma delta T cells kill autologous metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, inherently resistant to conventional treatments, is considered immunogenic. Indeed, partial responses are obtained after treatment with cytokines such as IL-2 or IFN-alpha, suggesting that the immune system may control the tumor growth. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the main subset of peripheral gammadelta lymphocytes, the Vgamma9Vdelta2-TCR T lymphocytes, to induce an effective cytotoxic response against autologous primary renal cell carcinoma lines. These gammadelta T cells were expanded ex vivo using a Vgamma9Vdelta2 agonist, a synthetic phosphoantigen called Phosphostim. From 11 of 15 patients, the peripheral Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells were amplified in vitro by stimulating PBMCs with IL-2 and Phosphostim molecule. These expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells express activation markers and exhibit an effector/memory phenotype. They display a selective lytic potential toward autologous primary renal tumor cells and not against renal NC. The lytic activity involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly TCR and NKG2D receptor dependent. Furthermore, an increased expression of MHC class I-related molecule A or B proteins, known ligands of NKG2D, are detected on primary renal tumor cells. Interestingly, from 2 of the 11 positive cultures in response to Phosphostim, expanded-Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells present an expression of killer cell Ig-like receptors, suggesting their prior recruitment in vivo. Unexpectedly, on serial frozen sections from three tumors, we observe a gammadelta lymphocyte infiltrate that was mainly composed of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. These results outline that Vgamma9Vdelta2-TCR effectors may represent a promising approach for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is increasing clinical evidence indicating that the immune system may either promote or inhibit tumor progression. Several studies have demonstrated that tumors undergoing remission are largely infiltrated by T lymphocytes [tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs)], but on the other hand, several studies have shown that tumors may be infiltrated by TILs endowed with suppressive features, suggesting that TILs are rather associated with tumor progression and unfavorable prognosis. γδ T lymphocytes are an important component of TILs that may contribute to tumor immunosurveillance, as also suggested by promising reports from several small phase-I clinical trials. Typically, γδ T lymphocytes perform effector functions involved in anti-tumor immune responses (cytotoxicity, production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and dendritic cell maturation), but under appropriate conditions they may divert from the typical Th1-like phenotype and polarize to Th2, Th17, and Treg cells thus acquiring the capability to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote tumor growth. Recent studies have shown a high frequency of γδ T lymphocytes infiltrating different types of cancer, but the nature of this association and the exact mechanisms underlying it remain uncertain and whether or not the presence of tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes is a definite prognostic factor remains controversial. In this paper, we will review studies of tumor-infiltrating γδ T lymphocytes from patients with different types of cancer, and we will discuss their clinical relevance. Moreover, we will also discuss on the complex interplay between cancer, tumor stroma, and γδ T lymphocytes as a major determinant of the final outcome of the γδ T lymphocyte response. Finally, we propose that targeting γδ T lymphocyte polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of cancer.Frontiers in Immunology 11/2014; 5:607.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women and the second most common cancer worldwide after lung cancer. The remarkable heterogeneity of breast cancers influences numerous diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic factors. Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBCs) lack expression of HER2 and the estrogen and progesterone receptors and often contain lymphocytic infiltrates. Most of TNBCs are invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) with poor prognosis, whereas prognostically more favorable subtypes such as medullary breast carcinomas (MBCs) are somewhat less frequent. Infiltrating T-cells have been associated with an improved clinical outcome in TNBCs. The prognostic role of γδ T-cells within CD3(+) tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes remains unclear. We analyzed 26 TNBCs, 14 IDCs, and 12 MBCs, using immunohistochemistry for the quantity and patterns of γδ T-cell infiltrates within the tumor microenvironment. In both types of TNBCs, we found higher numbers of γδ T-cells in comparison with normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. The numbers of infiltrating γδ T-cells were higher in MBCs than in IDCs. γδ T-cells in MBCs were frequently located in direct contact with tumor cells, within the tumor and at its invasive border. In contrast, most γδ T-cells in IDCs were found in clusters within the tumor stroma. These findings could be associated with the fact that the patient's prognosis in MBCs is better than that in IDCs. Further studies to characterize these γδ T-cells at the molecular and functional level are in progress.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:632.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The broad and potent tumor-reactivity of innate-like γδT cells makes them valuable additions to current cancer immunotherapeutic concepts based on adaptive immunity, such as monoclonal antibodies and αβT cells. However, clinical success using γδT cells to treat cancer has so far fallen short. Efforts of recent years have revealed a striking diversity in γδT cell functions and immunobiology, putting these cells forward as true "swiss army knives" of immunity. At the same time, however, this heterogeneity poses new challenges to the design of γδT cell-based therapeutic concepts and could explain their rather limited clinical efficacy in cancer patients. This review outlines the recent new insights into the different levels of γδT cell diversity, including the myriad of γδT cell-mediated immune functions, the diversity of specificities and affinities within the γδT cell repertoire, and the multitude of complex molecular requirements for γδT cell activation. A careful consideration of the diversity of antibodies and αβT cells has delivered great progress to their clinical success; addressing also the extraordinary diversity in γδT cells will therefore hold the key to more effective immunotherapeutic strategies with γδT cells as additional and valuable tools to battle cancer.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:601.