Phosphostim-Activated γδ T Cells Kill Autologous Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma
ABSTRACT Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, inherently resistant to conventional treatments, is considered immunogenic. Indeed, partial responses are obtained after treatment with cytokines such as IL-2 or IFN-alpha, suggesting that the immune system may control the tumor growth. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the main subset of peripheral gammadelta lymphocytes, the Vgamma9Vdelta2-TCR T lymphocytes, to induce an effective cytotoxic response against autologous primary renal cell carcinoma lines. These gammadelta T cells were expanded ex vivo using a Vgamma9Vdelta2 agonist, a synthetic phosphoantigen called Phosphostim. From 11 of 15 patients, the peripheral Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells were amplified in vitro by stimulating PBMCs with IL-2 and Phosphostim molecule. These expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells express activation markers and exhibit an effector/memory phenotype. They display a selective lytic potential toward autologous primary renal tumor cells and not against renal NC. The lytic activity involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly TCR and NKG2D receptor dependent. Furthermore, an increased expression of MHC class I-related molecule A or B proteins, known ligands of NKG2D, are detected on primary renal tumor cells. Interestingly, from 2 of the 11 positive cultures in response to Phosphostim, expanded-Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells present an expression of killer cell Ig-like receptors, suggesting their prior recruitment in vivo. Unexpectedly, on serial frozen sections from three tumors, we observe a gammadelta lymphocyte infiltrate that was mainly composed of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. These results outline that Vgamma9Vdelta2-TCR effectors may represent a promising approach for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded autologous Vγ9Vδ2 T cells may be of therapeutic benefit for cancer because of their potent direct cytotoxicity towards tumour cells, synergistic cytotoxicity when combined with aminobisphosphonates and enhancement of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. To determine the feasibility and clinical safety of therapy with ex vivo expanded, activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells in combination with zoledronate, we enrolled 18 subjects with advanced solid tumours into a phase I clinical study. Administered indium(111)-oxine-labelled Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were tracked in a cohort of patients. Administered Vγ9Vδ2 T cells had an activated effector memory phenotype, expressed chemokine receptors predictive of homing to peripheral tissues and were cytotoxic in vitro against tumour targets. Adoptively transferred Vγ9Vδ2 T cells trafficked predominantly to the lungs, liver and spleen and, in some patients, to metastatic tumour sites outside these organs. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, but most patients progressed on study therapy. However, three patients administered Vγ9Vδ2 T cells while continuing previously ineffective therapy had disease responses, suggesting an additive effect. Therapy with aminobisphosphonate-activated Vγ9Vδ2 T cells is feasible and well tolerated, but therapeutic benefits appear only likely when used in combination with other therapies.British Journal of Cancer 08/2011; 105(6):778-86. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2011.293 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor gene von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is involved in the development of sporadic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). VHL interferes with angiogenesis and also controls cell adhesion and invasion. Therapies that target VHL-controlled genes are currently being evaluated in RCC patients. RCC is a immunogenic tumor and treatment with interleukin-2 (IL2) or interferon (IFN)-α results in regression in some patients. We used two renal tumor cell lines (RCC6 and RCC4) carrying VHL loss-of-function mutations to investigate the role of mutant VHL in susceptibility to natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis. The RCC6 and RCC4 cell lines were transfected with the wild-type gene to restore the function of VHL. The presence of the gene in RCC cells downregulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and subsequently decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Relative to control transfectants and parental cells, pVHL-transfected cell lines activated resting and IL2-activated NK cells less strongly, as assessed by IFNγ secretion, NK degranulation and cell lysis. NKG2A, a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I-specific inhibitory NK receptor, controls the lysis of tumor targets. We show that HLA-I expression in RCC-pVHL cells is stronger than that in parental and controls cells, although the expression of activating receptor NK ligands remains unchanged. Blocking NKG2A/HLA-I interactions substantially increased lysis of RCC-pVHL, but had little effect on the lysis of VHL-mutated RCC cell lines. In addition, in response to IFNα, the exponential growth of RCC-pVHL was inhibited more than that of RCC-pE cells, indicating that VHL mutations may be involved in IFNα resistance. These results indicate that a decreased expression of HLA-I molecules in mutated VHL renal tumor cells sensitizes them to NK-mediated lysis. These results suggest that combined immunotherapy with anti-angiogenic drugs may be beneficial for patients with mutated VHL.Oncogene 01/2011; 30(23):2622-32. DOI:10.1038/onc.2010.638 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: T-cell-mediated immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic option for multiple myeloma (MM). Gamma-delta T cells (gammadelta T cells) recognize phosphoantigens and display strong anti-tumour cytotoxicity. The synthetic agonist Phosphostim (bromohydrin pyrophosphate, BrHPP) has been shown to selectively activate Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. This study aimed to evaluate the expansion capacity and anti-myeloma cell cytotoxicity of circulating gammadelta T cells from MM patients at different time points throughout the disease, using Phosphostim and interleukin 2 (IL-2). Circulating gammadelta T cell counts in patients with newly diagnosed MM or in relapse did not differ from those in healthy donors. A 14-d culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with Phosphostim and IL-2 triggered a 100-fold expansion of gammadelta T cells in 78% of newly diagnosed patients. Gammadelta T cells harvested at the time of haematopoietic progenitor collection or in relapsing patients expanded less efficiently. Expanded gammadelta T cells killed 13/14 myeloma cell lines as well as primary myeloma cells, but not normal CD34 cells. Their killing efficiency was not affected by 2-d IL-2 starvation. This study demonstrated the ability of Phosphostim and IL-2 to expand gammadelta T cells from MM patients, and the efficient and stable killing of human myeloma cells by gd T cells.British Journal of Haematology 11/2007; 139(2):206-16. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06754.x · 4.96 Impact Factor