Phosphostim-Activated γδ T Cells Kill Autologous Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Unité 487, Institut Fédératif de Recherche 54, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 03/2005; 174(3):1338-47. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.174.3.1338
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, inherently resistant to conventional treatments, is considered immunogenic. Indeed, partial responses are obtained after treatment with cytokines such as IL-2 or IFN-alpha, suggesting that the immune system may control the tumor growth. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the main subset of peripheral gammadelta lymphocytes, the Vgamma9Vdelta2-TCR T lymphocytes, to induce an effective cytotoxic response against autologous primary renal cell carcinoma lines. These gammadelta T cells were expanded ex vivo using a Vgamma9Vdelta2 agonist, a synthetic phosphoantigen called Phosphostim. From 11 of 15 patients, the peripheral Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells were amplified in vitro by stimulating PBMCs with IL-2 and Phosphostim molecule. These expanded Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells express activation markers and exhibit an effector/memory phenotype. They display a selective lytic potential toward autologous primary renal tumor cells and not against renal NC. The lytic activity involves the perforin-granzyme pathway and is mainly TCR and NKG2D receptor dependent. Furthermore, an increased expression of MHC class I-related molecule A or B proteins, known ligands of NKG2D, are detected on primary renal tumor cells. Interestingly, from 2 of the 11 positive cultures in response to Phosphostim, expanded-Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells present an expression of killer cell Ig-like receptors, suggesting their prior recruitment in vivo. Unexpectedly, on serial frozen sections from three tumors, we observe a gammadelta lymphocyte infiltrate that was mainly composed of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. These results outline that Vgamma9Vdelta2-TCR effectors may represent a promising approach for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

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