Humanin binds and nullifies Bid activity by blocking its activation of Bax and Bak.
ABSTRACT Recently, we discovered that Humanin (HN), a small endogenous peptide of 24 amino acids, binds to and inhibits the proapoptotic protein Bax. We show here that HN also interacts with the BH3-only Bcl-2/Bax family protein, Bid, as well as a truncated form of Bid (tBid) associated with protease-mediated activation of this proapoptotic protein. Synthetic HN peptide binds purified Bid and tBid in vitro and blocks tBid-induced release of cytochrome c and SMAC from isolated mitochondria, whereas mutant peptides that fail to bind Bid or tBid lack this activity. Moreover, HN peptide also retained protective activity on bax-/-mitochondria, indicating that HN can block tBid-induced release of apoptogenic proteins from these organelles in a Bax-independent manner. HN peptide inhibits tBid-induced oligomerization of Bax and Bak in mitochondrial membranes, as shown by experiments with chemical cross-linkers or gel filtration. Gene transfection experiments showed that HN (but not an inactive mutant of HN) also protects intact cells from apoptosis induced by overexpression of tBid. We conclude that Bid represents an additional cellular target of HN, and we propose that HN-mediated suppression of Bid contributes to the antiapoptotic activity of this endogenous peptide.
- SourceAvailable from: Seung-Hyung Kim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the early intracellular event that triggers neurodegenerative cascades and reversal of neuronal cell death are essential for effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, a novel therapeutic for AD, a transducible humanin with an extended caspase-3 cleavage sequence (tHN-C3), was developed and showed multiple mechanisms of therapeutic action. These included targeted delivery of anti-apoptotic protein humanin through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to neuronal cells, specific inhibition of caspase-3 activation to inhibit the early triggering of AD progression, and delivery of humanin into the cytoplasm of neuronal cells undergoing apoptosis where it exerts its anti-apoptotic functions effectively. The tHN-C3 prevented neuronal cell death induced by H(2)O(2), or soluble Aβ(42), via Bax binding. In animal models of AD induced by amyloid beta, in Tg2576 mice, and in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke, tHN-C3 effectively prevented neuronal cell death, inflammatory cell infiltration into the brain, and improved cognitive memory. The therapeutic effectiveness of tHN-C3 was comparable to that of Aricept, a clinically approved drug for AD treatment. Therefore, tHN-C3 may be a new remedy with multiple therapeutic functions targeting the early and late stages of neurodegeneration in AD and other brain injuries.Journal of Controlled Release 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.12.022 · 7.26 Impact Factor
- Journal of Controlled Release 01/2013; 166:307-315. · 7.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The discovery of humanin, a novel, mitochondria-derived peptide, has created a potentially new category of biologically active peptide. As more research unravels the endogenous role of humanin as well as its potential pharmacological use, its role in stress resistance has become clearer. Humanin protects cells from oxidative stress, serum starvation, hypoxia, and other insults in vitro and also improves cardiovascular disease as well as Alzheimer's disease in vivo. In this review we discuss the emerging role of humanin in stress resistance and its proposed mechanism of action.Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 12/2012; 50(1). DOI:10.1530/JME-12-0203 · 3.62 Impact Factor