Familial multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas associated with papillary renal cell cancer

Department of Dermatology, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology (Impact Factor: 1.23). 02/2005; 30(1):75-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2230.2004.01675.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas is an autosomal dominant condition that results in benign smooth muscle tumours of the skin and, in females, uterine fibroids. This syndrome overlaps with hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer syndrome in which affected individuals may develop the rare type II papillary renal cell cancer, in addition to skin leiomyomas. Recently, heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding fumarate hydratase have been found to underlie both conditions. Fumarate hydratase is an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of fumarate to malate in the Kreb's cycle and may also function as a tumour suppressor gene. We report a family with multiple leiomyomas, uterine fibroids and papillary renal cell cancer. The proband is a 77-year-old Polish woman who developed multiple cutaneous leiomyomas on her right upper arm in her thirties and subsequently underwent a hysterectomy for uterine fibroids in her forties. She has four offspring: her eldest daughter also has skin and uterine leiomyomas with a similar onset; her son has multiple skin leiomyomas and in addition was diagnosed with metastatic papillary renal cell cancer at the age of 50 years; the two youngest daughters are unaffected. DNA sequencing in all the affected individuals disclosed a heterozygous G-->C substitution at nucleotide 173 of the fumarate hydratase gene, that converts an arginine residue (CGA) to proline (CCA). This missense mutation has not been reported previously and is designated R58P. Interestingly, the clinically asymptomatic 20-year-old son of the individual with renal cancer was also found to be heterozygous for R58P. It is likely that he will develop skin leiomyomas in the future but the risk of renal cancer is difficult to predict. Nevertheless, detection of this mutation has important implications for screening and genetic counselling in this and other family members.

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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant condition in which susceptible individuals are at risk for the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early onset multiple uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type 2 papillary renal cell cancer. HLRCC is caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene which inactivate the enzyme and alters the function of the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle. Issues surrounding surveillance and treatment for HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer were considered as part of a recent international symposium on HLRCC. The management protocol proposed in this article is based on a literature review and a consensus meeting. The lifetime renal cancer risk for FH mutation carriers is estimated to be 15 %. In view of the potential for early onset of RCC in HLRCC, periodic renal imaging and, when available, predictive testing for a FH mutation is recommended from 8 to 10 years of age. However, the small risk of renal cell cancer in the 10-20 years age range and the potential drawbacks of screening should be carefully discussed on an individual basis. Surveillance preferably consists of annual abdominal MRI. Treatment of renal tumours should be prompt and generally consist of wide-margin surgical excision and consideration of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The choice for systemic treatment in metastatic disease should, if possible, be part of a clinical trial. Screening procedures in HLRCC families should preferably be evaluated in large cohorts of families.
    Familial Cancer 07/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10689-014-9735-2 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary leiomyomatosis-renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by cutaneous leiomyomas, symptomatic uterine leiomyomas and aggressive type II papillary renal cell carcinoma. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene on chromosome 1q43. We present evidence of genetic anticipation in HLRCC syndrome. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine the potential for genetic anticipation in HLRCC syndrome. The normal random effects model was used to evaluate for genetic anticipation to ensure reduction in bias. A total of 11 FH kindreds with available multi-generational data were identified for analysis. The mean difference in age at diagnosis of RCC between the first and second generation was -18.6 years (95 % CI -26.6 to -10.6, p < 0.001). The mean difference in age at diagnosis of RCC between the first and third generation was -36.2 years (95 % CI -47.0 to -25.4, p < 0.001). No evidence of anticipation for uterine leiomyomas was observed (p = 0.349). We report preliminary evidence of genetic anticipation of RCC in HLRCC syndrome. Additional clinical validation is important to confirm this observation, which may have practical implications on counseling and timing of surveillance initiation. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of anticipation in HLRCC would be of considerable biological interest.
    Familial Cancer 02/2014; 13(2). DOI:10.1007/s10689-014-9703-x · 1.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is an autosomal-dominant hereditary syndrome, which is caused by germline mutations in the FH gene that encodes the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH). HLRCC patients are predisposed to develop cutaneous leiomyomas, multiple, symptomatic uterine fibroids in young women resulting in early hysterectomies, and early onset renal tumors with a type 2 papillary morphology that can progress and metastasize, even when small. Since HLRCC-associated renal tumors can be more aggressive than renal tumors in other hereditary renal cancer syndromes, caution is warranted, and surgical intervention is recommended rather than active surveillance. At-risk members of an HLRCC family who test positive for the familial germline FH mutation should undergo surveillance by annual magnetic resonance imaging from the age of 8 years. Biochemical studies have shown that FH-deficient kidney cancer is characterized by a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis. It is hoped that through ongoing clinical trials evaluating targeted molecular therapies, an effective form of treatment for HLRCC-associated kidney cancer will be developed that will offer an improved prognosis for individuals affected with HLRCC-associated kidney cancer.
    International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 06/2014; 7:253-60. DOI:10.2147/IJNRD.S42097