A novel metabolic pathway for degradation of 4-nonylphenol environmental contaminants by Sphingomonas xenophaga Bayram: ipso-hydroxylation and intramolecular rearrangement.
ABSTRACT Several nonylphenol isomers with alpha-quaternary carbon atoms serve as growth substrates for Sphingomonas xenophaga Bayram, whereas isomers containing hydrogen atoms at the alpha-carbon do not. Three metabolites of 4-(1-methyloctyl)-phenol were isolated in mg quantities from cultures of strain Bayram supplemented with the growth substrate isomer 4-(1-ethyl-1,4-dimethyl-pentyl)-phenol. They were unequivocally identified as 4-hydroxy-4-(1-methyl-octyl)-cyclohexa-2,5-dienone, 4-hydroxy-4-(1-methyl-octyl)-cyclohex-2-enone, and 2-(1-methyl-octyl)-benzene-1,4-diol by high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Furthermore, two metabolites originating from 4-n-nonylphenol were identified as 4-hydroxy-4-nonyl-cyclohexa-2,5-dienone and 4-hydroxy-4-nonyl-cyclohex-2-enone by high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. We conclude that nonylphenols were initially hydroxylated at the ipso-position forming 4-alkyl-4-hydroxy-cyclohexa-2,5-dienones. Dienones originating from growth substrate nonylphenol isomers underwent a rearrangement that involved a 1,2-C,O shift of the alkyl moiety as a cation to the oxygen atom of the geminal hydroxy group yielding 4-alkoxyphenols, from which the alkyl moieties can be easily detached as alcohols by known mechanisms. Dienones originating from nongrowth substrates did not undergo such a rearrangement because the missing alkyl substituents at the alpha-carbon atom prevented stabilization of the putative alpha-carbocation. Instead they accumulated and subsequently underwent side reactions, such as 1,2-C,C shifts and dihydrogenations. The ipso-hydroxylation and the proposed 1,2-C,O shift constitute key steps in a novel pathway that enables bacteria to detach alpha-branched alkyl moieties of alkylphenols for utilization of the aromatic part as a carbon and energy source.
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ABSTRACT: Organic micropollutants may be present in biosolids, leading to soil contamination when they are recycled in agriculture. A sludge spiked with (14)C-labelled glyphosate (GLY), sodium linear dodecylbenzene sulphonate (LAS), fluoranthene (FLT) or 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) was composted with green waste and the fate of the (14)C-micropollutant residues remaining after composting was assessed after the compost application to the soil. (14)C-residues were mineralised in the soil and represented after 140d 20-32% of the initial activity for LAS, 16-25% for GLY, 6-9% for FLT and 4-7% for NP. The (14)C-residues at the end of composting that could not be extracted with methanol or ammonia were minimally remobilised or even increased for FLT. After 140d, non-extractable residues represented 38-52% of all of the (14)C-residues remaining in the soil for FLT, 50-67% for GLY, 91-92% for NP and 94-97% for LAS and in most cases, less than 1% of the (14)C-residues were water soluble, suggesting a low direct availability for leaching and microbial or plant assimilation. FLT was identified as the main compound among the methanol-extractable (14)C-residues that may be potentially available. The fate of the (14)C-organic pollutant residues in composts after application to soil could be assessed through a sequential chemical extraction scheme and depended on the chemical nature of the pollutant.Chemosphere 03/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs), a major class of nonionic surfactants, can easily enter into aquatic environments through various pathways due to their wide applications, which leads to the extensive existence of their relative stable metabolites, namely nonylphenol (NP) and mono- to tri-ethoxylates. This study investigated the bioconcentration and degradation of NP and NPnEO oligomers (n = 1-12) by a green algae, Chlorella vulgaris. Experimental results showed that C. vulgaris can remove NP from water phase efficiently, and bioconcentration and degradation accounted for approximately half of its loss, respectively, with a 48 h BCF (bioconcentration factor) of 2.42 × 103. Moreover, C. vulgaris could concentrate and degrade NPnEOs, distribution profiles of the series homologues of the NPnEOs in algae and water phase were quite different from the initial homologue profile. The 48 h BCF of the NPnEO homologues increased with the length of the EO chain. Degradation extent of total NPnEOs by C. vulgaris was 95.7%, and only 1.1% remained in water phase, and the other 3.2% remained in the algal cells. The algae removed the NPnEOs mainly through degradation. Due to rapid degradation, concentrations of the long chain NPnEO homologous in both water (n ≥ 2) and the algal phase (n ≥ 5) was quite low at the end of a 48 h experiment.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(1):1255-1270. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Assessing the fate of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the environment is currently a key issue for determining their impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) is a well known EDC and results from the biodegradation of surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEOs). Fate mechanisms of NPnEO are well documented but their rate constants have been mainly determined through laboratory experiments. This study aims at evaluating the in-situ fate of 4-NP, nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenolic acetic acid (NP1EC). Two sampling campaigns were carried out on the Seine River in July and September 2011, along a 28km-transect downstream Paris City. The field measurements are used for the calibration of a sub-model of NPnEO fate, included into a hydro-ecological model of the Seine River (ProSe). The timing of the sampling is based on the Seine River velocity in order to follow a volume of water. Based on our results, in-situ attenuation rate constants of 4-NP, NP1EO and NP1EC for both campaigns are evaluated. These rate constants vary greatly. Although the attenuation rate constants in July are especially high (higher than 1d(-1)), those obtained in September are lower and consistent with the literature. This is probably due to the biogeochemical conditions in the Seine River. Indeed, the July sampling campaign took place at the end of an algal bloom leading to an unusual bacterial biomass while the September campaign was carried out during common biogeochemical status. Finally, the uncertainties on measurements and on the calibration parameters are estimated through a sensitivity analysis. This study provides relevant information regarding the fate of biodegradable pollutants in an aquatic environment by coupling field measurements and a biogeochemical model. Such data may be very helpful in the future to better understand the fate of nonylphenolic compounds or any other pollutants at the basin scale.Science of The Total Environment 10/2013; 468-469C:1050-1058. · 3.26 Impact Factor