Article

Expression-based discovery of variation in the human glutathione S-transferase M3 promoter and functional analysis in a glioma cell line using allele-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation.

Laboratory of Computational Biology and Risk Analysis, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.28). 02/2005; 65(1):99-104.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Discovery and functional evaluation of biologically significant regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in carcinogen metabolism genes is a difficult challenge because the phenotypic consequences may be both transient and subtle. We have used a gene expression screening approach to identify a functional regulatory SNP in glutathione S-transferase M3 (GSTM3). Anttila et al. proposed that variation in GSTM3 expression was affected by exposure to cigarette smoke and inheritance of the GSTM1-null genotype. To investigate the mechanism of GSTM3 expression was affected by exposure to cigarette smoke and inheritance of the GSTM1-null genotype. To investigate the mechanism of GSTM3 expression variation, we measured GSTM3 expression in lymphoblast cells from a human Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain family and observed a low expression phenotype. Promoter sequencing revealed two novel GSTM3 promoter SNPs: A/C and A/G SNPs, 63 and 783 bp upstream of the codon 1 start site, respectively. In this pedigree, the two children homozygous for the -63C/C genotype had 8-fold lower GSTM3 expression relative to the two children with the -63A/A genotype, with no association between A-783G SNP and GSTM3 expression. Further evaluation using genotyped glioma cell lines and with luciferase reporter constructs showed that the -63C allele was associated with lower GSTM3 expression (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.003). RNA pol II chromatin immunoprecipitation was combined with quantitative probed-based allelic discrimination genotyping to provide direct evidence of a 9-fold reduced RNA pol II binding capacity for the -63C allele. These results show that the GSTM3 -63C allele strongly affects gene expression in human cell lines and suggests that individuals who carry the low expression allele may be deficient in glutathione transferase catalyzed biological functions.

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