Article

Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences.

Department of Oncology, RKCSB, LRI, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE2 7LX, United Kingdom.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 02/2005; 14(1):120-5.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Curcumin, a constituent of the spice turmeric, has been shown to reduce the adenoma burden in rodent models of colorectal cancer accompanied by a reduction of levels of the oxidative DNA adduct 3-(2-deoxy-beta-di-erythro-pentafuranosyl)-pyr[1,2-alpha]-purin-10(3H)one (M(1)G) and of expression of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically active levels of curcumin can be achieved in the colorectum of humans as measured by effects on levels of M(1)G and COX-2 protein. Patients with colorectal cancer ingested curcumin capsules (3,600, 1,800, or 450 mg daily) for 7 days. Biopsy samples of normal and malignant colorectal tissue, respectively, were obtained at diagnosis and at 6 to 7 hours after the last dose of curcumin. Blood was taken 1 hour after the last dose of curcumin. Curcumin and its metabolites were detected and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography with detection by UV spectrophotometry or mass spectrometry. M(1)G levels and COX-2 protein expression were measured by immunoslot blot and Western blotting, respectively. The concentrations of curcumin in normal and malignant colorectal tissue of patients receiving 3,600 mg of curcumin were 12.7 +/- 5.7 and 7.7 +/- 1.8 nmol/g, respectively. Curcumin sulfate and curcumin glucuronide were identified in the tissue of these patients. Trace levels of curcumin were found in the peripheral circulation. M(1)G levels were 2.5-fold higher in malignant tissue as compared with normal tissue (P < 0.05 by ANOVA). Administration of curcumin (3,600 mg) decreased M(1)G levels from 4.8 +/- 2.9 adducts per 107 nucleotides in malignant colorectal tissue to 2.0 +/- 1.8 adducts per 107 nucleotides (P < 0.05 by ANOVA). COX-2 protein levels in malignant colorectal tissue were not affected by curcumin. The results suggest that a daily dose of 3.6 g curcumin achieves pharmacologically efficacious levels in the colorectum with negligible distribution of curcumin outside the gut.

0 Followers
 · 
67 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BCRP limits intestinal absorption of low-permeability substrate drugs and mediates biliary excretion of drugs and metabolites. Based on clinical evidence of BCRP-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and the c.421C>A functional polymorphism affecting drug efficacy and safety, both the FDA and EMA recommend preclinical evaluation, and when appropriate, clinical evaluation of BCRP-mediated DDIs. Although many BCRP substrates and inhibitors have been identified in vitro, clinical translation has been confounded by overlap with other transporters and metabolic enzymes. Thus, mechanistic attribution of clinical DDIs to BCRP has been equivocal. Regulatory recommendations for BCRP-mediated clinical DDI studies are challenging, as consensus is lacking on the choice of the most robust and specific human BCRP substrates and inhibitors and optimal study design. This review proposes a path forward based on a comprehensive analysis of available data. Oral sulfasalazine (1000 mg, IR tablet) is the best available clinical substrate for intestinal BCRP, oral rosuvastatin (20 mg) for both intestinal and hepatic BCRP, and intravenous rosuvastatin (4 mg) for hepatic BCRP. Oral curcumin (2000 mg) and lapatinib (250 mg) are the best available clinical BCRP inhibitors. To interrogate the worst-case clinical BCRP DDI scenario, study subjects harboring the BCRP c.421C/C reference genotype are recommended. In addition, if sulfasalazine is selected as the substrate, subjects having the rapid acetylator phenotype are recommended, whereas if rosuvastatin is selected, subjects harboring the OATP1B1 c.521T/T reference genotype are recommended. A proof-of-concept clinical study is being planned by a collaborative consortium to evaluate the proposed BCRP DDI study design. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 01/2015; DOI:10.1124/dmd.114.062174 · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent findings on the molecular basis of ovarian cancer development and progression create new opportunities to develop anticancer medications that would affect specific metabolic pathways and decrease side systemic toxicity of conventional treatment. Among new possibilities for cancer chemoprevention, much attention is paid to curcumin-A broad-spectrum anticancer polyphenolic derivative extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa L. According to ClinicalTrials.gov at present there are no running pilot studies, which could assess possible therapeutic benefits from curcumin supplementation to patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Therefore, the goal of this review was to evaluate potential preclinical properties of curcumin and its new analogues on the basis of in vivo and in vitro ovarian cancer studies. Curcumin and its different formulations have been shown to display multifunctional mechanisms of anticancer activity, not only in platinum-resistant primary epithelial ovarian cancer, but also in multidrug resistant cancer cells/xenografts models. Curcumin administered together with platinum-taxane chemotherapeutics have been reported to demonstrate synergistic effects, sensitize resistant cells to drugs, and decrease their biologically effective doses. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that curcumin, due to its long-term safety and an excellent profile of side effects should be considered as a beneficial support in ovarian cancer treatment strategies, especially in patients with platinum-resistant primary epithelial recurrent ovarian cancer or multidrug resistant disease. Although the prospect of curcumin and its formulations as anticancer agents in ovarian cancer treatment strategy appears to be challenging, and at the same time promising, there is a further need to evaluate its effectiveness in clinical studies.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2014; 15(12):21703-21722. DOI:10.3390/ijms151221703 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cancer is the most dreadful disease worldwide in terms of morbidity and mortality. The exact cause of cancer development and progression is not fully known. But it is thought that cancer occurs due to the structural and functional changes in the genes. The current approach to cancer treatment based on allopathic is expensive, exhibits side effects; and may also alter the normal functioning of genes. Thus, a safe and effective mode of treatment is needed to control the cancer development and progression. Some medicinal plants provide a safe, effective and affordable remedy to control the progression of malignant cells. The importance of medicinal plants and their constituents has been documented in Ayurveda, Unani medicine, and various religious books. Curcumin, a vital constituent of the spice turmeric, is an alternative approach in the prevention of cancer. Earlier studies have shown the effect of curcumin as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor and it also has a noteworthy role in the control of different diseases. In this review, we summarize the understanding of chemopreventive effects of curcumin in the prevention of cancer via the regulation of various cell signaling and genetic pathways.
    BioMed Research International 09/2014; 2014:761608. DOI:10.1155/2014/761608 · 2.71 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from
Mar 20, 2015